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Gross Motor Function Classification System

This page was last updated on February 8th, 2023

The GMFCS Definition: The GMFCS is a classification system for individuals with CP that places the person in one of five categories based on their age, motor function abilities and limitations, and need for assistive technology and wheeled mobility (46).


  • GMFCS Level I: Children with this level of function can walk indoors and out and climb stairs without using hands for support. They can run and jump but do so with decreased speed, balance, and coordination.


  • GMFCS Level II: Children in Level II have the ability to walk indoors and out and climb stairs with a railing. They have difficulty on uneven surfaces, on inclines or in crowds, and have only a minimal ability to run or jump.


  • GMFCS Level III: Children in Level III walk with assistive devices indoors and out on level surfaces. They may be able to climb stairs using a railing and may be able to propel a wheelchair for short distances but may require assistance for long distances or over uneven surfaces.


  • GMFCS Level IV: Children with this level of function are severely limited in their ability to walk, even with assistive devices. They use wheelchairs most of the time, with some being able to propel the device by themselves. They may participate in transfers.


  • GMFCS Level V: Children in Level V have physical impairments that restrict voluntary control of movement and have difficulty maintaining head and neck position against gravity. They are impaired in all areas of motor function and cannot sit, stand, or walk independently. They may be able to control powered mobility devices.

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