Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen/Install App' to create a shortcut app

History of Management of Atretic Encephaloceles in Children

This page was last updated on May 9th, 2017

Understanding of Disease

  • 1932 – first modern description: In 1932, Ingalls reported a midline cranial anomaly in embryos that was referred to as “nuchal bleb” (10).
  • 1950 – recognition of similarity to lumbosacral meningocele: In 1950, James and Lassman coined the term “meningocele manqué” to designate an arrested (or involuted) form of the common spinal meningocele (13).
  • 1964 – description of spectrum of encephaloceles: In 1964, McLaurin provided the first clinical description of parietal encephaloceles, which included four cases of true encephaloceles, two of heterotopic glial rests, two of meningoceles with central connection, and five of meningoceles without central connection (23).
  • 1979 – first use of “atretic” to describe lesion: Yamada et al., in 1979, presented three instances of a “peculiar head tumor” and suggested the lesions should be called “atretic” or “rudimentary” encephaloceles (32).
  • 1988 and 1992 – series descriptions of atretic encephaloceles: Atretic encephaloceles were further characterized by Yokota et al. (33) in 1988, who included five instances of these lesions, and by Martínez-Lage et al. (16) in 1992, who reported an additional 16 cases and placed special emphasis on the associated intracranial anomalies.

Your donations keep us going

The ISPN Guide is free to use, but we rely on donations to fund our ongoing work and to maintain more than a thousand pages of information created to disseminate the most up-to-date knowledge in the field of paediatric neurosurgery.

By making a donation to The ISPN Guide you are also indirectly helping the many thousands of children around the world whose treatment depends on well-informed surgeons.

Please consider making a donation today.

Use the app

The ISPN Guide can be used as a standalone app, both on mobile devices and desktop computers. It’s quick and easy to use.

Fully featured

Free registration grants you full access to The Guide and host of featured designed to help further your own education.

Stay updated

The ISPN Guide continues to expand both in breadth and depth. Join our mailing list to stay up-to-date with our progress.