- Stratification of therapy according to molecular profile: It is likely that Wnt signaling pathway medulloblastomas will require less radiation than the current standard (34); desmoplastic medulloblastomas may be cured with chemotherapy alone (29).
- Signaling pathway inhibitors: These have been disappointing up to now; however, they may have a role in conjunction with chemotherapy in the future (28).
- Personalized chemotherapy based on molecular behavior: The potential to personalize treatment according to the response of growing individual tumors in vitro may be a previously untapped possibility for aggressive tumors in the future (48).
- Immunotherapy: This is currently being explored in clinical trials; this approach has been disappointing up to now (47).
- Antiangiogenesis therapy: This approach is continuing to be evaluated (5).
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors: These agents are currently in phase II clinical trials; their value remains to be determined (49).
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