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References for Pineal Region Tumors in Children

This page was last updated on August 19th, 2022

  1. Abay EO, 2nd, Laws ER, Jr., Grado GL, et al: Pineal tumors in children and adolescents. Treatment by CSF shunting and radiotherapy. J Neurosurg 55:889-895, 1981
  2. Al-Hussaini M, Sultan I, Abuirmileh N, et al: Pineal gland tumors: experience from the SEER database. J Neurooncol 94:351-358, 2009
  3. Allen JC, DaRosso RC, Donahue B, et al: A phase II trial of preirradiation carboplatin in newly diagnosed germinoma of the central nervous system. Cancer 74:940-944, 1994
  4. Allen JC, Kim JH, Packer RJ: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg 67:65-70, 1987
  5. Amendola BE, McClatchey K, Amendola MA: Pineal region tumors: analysis of treatment results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 10:991-997, 1984
  6. Balmaceda C, Heller G, Rosenblum M, et al: Chemotherapy without irradiation–a novel approach for newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors: results of an international cooperative trial. The First International Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol 14:2908-2915, 1996
  7. Barnett DW, Olson JJ, Thomas WG, et al: Low-grade astrocytomas arising from the pineal gland. Surg Neurol 43:70-75; discussion 75-76, 1995
  8. Bjornsson J, Scheithauer BW, Okazaki H, et al: Intracranial germ cell tumors: pathobiological and immunohistochemical aspects of 70 cases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 44:32-46, 1985
  9. Borit A, Blackwood W, Mair WG: The separation of pineocytoma from pineoblastoma. Cancer 45:1408-1418, 1980
  10. Boydston WR, Sanford RA, Muhlbauer MS, et al: Gliomas of the tectum and periaqueductal region of the mesencephalon. Pediatr Neurosurg 17:234-238, 1991
  11. Calaminus G, Bamberg M, Baranzelli MC, et al: Intracranial germ cell tumors: a comprehensive update of the European data. Neuropediatrics 25:26-32, 1994
  12. Castaneda VL, Parmley RT, Geiser CF, et al: Postoperative chemotherapy for primary intracranial germ cell tumor. Med Pediatr Onco 18:299-303, 1990
  13. Chang SM, Lillis-Hearne PK, Larson DA, et al: Pineoblastoma in adults. Neurosurgery 37:383-390; discussion 390-381, 1995
  14. Chang TK, Wong TT, Hwang B: Combination chemotherapy with vinblastine, bleomycin, cisplatin, and etoposide (VBPE) in children with primary intracranial germ cell tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:368-372, 1995
  15. Chibbaro S, Di Rocco F, Makiese O, et al: Neuroendoscopic management of posterior third ventricle and pineal region tumors: technique, limitation, and possible complication avoidance. Neurosurg Rev, 2012
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  17. Dandy W: An operation for the removal of pineal tumors. Surg Gynecol Obstet 22:113-119, 1921
  18. Dattoli MJ, Newall J: Radiation therapy for intracranial germinoma: the case for limited volume treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19:429-433, 1990
  19. Dearnaley DP, A’Hern RP, Whittaker S, et al: Pineal and CNS germ cell tumors: Royal Marsden Hospital experience 1962-1987. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:773-781, 1990
  20. Disclafani A, Hudgins RJ, Edwards MS, et al: Pineocytomas. Cancer 63:302-304, 1989
  21. Duffner PK, Cohen ME, Sanford RA, et al: Lack of efficacy of postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in very young children with pineoblastoma. Pediatric Oncology Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 25:38-44, 1995
  22. Erlich SS, Apuzzo ML: The pineal gland: anatomy, physiology, and clinical significance. J Neurosurg 63:321-341, 1985
  23. Fain JS, Tomlinson FH, Scheithauer BW, et al: Symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland. J Neurosurg 80:454-460, 1994
  24. Fauchon F, Jouvet A, Paquis P, et al: Parenchymal pineal tumors: a clinicopathological study of 76 cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:959-968, 2000
  25. Felix I, Becker LE: Intracranial germ cell tumors in children: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study. PediatrNeurosurg 16:156-162, 1990
  26. Fevre-Montange M, Hasselblatt M, Figarella-Branger D, et al: Prognosis and histopathologic features in papillary tumors of the pineal region: a retrospective multicenter study of 31 cases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:1004-1011, 2006
  27. Franzini A, Leocata F, Servello D, et al: Long-term follow-up of germinoma after stereotactic biopsy and brain radiotherapy: a cell kinetics study. J Neurol 245:593-597, 1998
  28. Friedman JA, Lynch JJ, Buckner JC, et al: Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma. Neurosurgery 48:518-522; discussion 522-513, 2001
  29. Fuller BG, Kapp DS, Cox R: Radiation therapy of pineal region tumors: 25 new cases and a review of 208 previously reported cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:229-245, 1994
  30. Glenn OA, Barkovich AJ: Intracranial germ cell tumors: a comprehensive review of proposed embryologic derivation. Pediatr Neurosur 24:242-251, 1996
  31. Gururangan S, McLaughlin C, Quinn J, et al: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in children and adults with newly diagnosed pineoblastomas. J Clin Oncol 21:2187-2191, 2003
  32. Gutierrez F, Tomita, T, Leestma, J et al: Pineoblastomas in children. Concepts in Pediatr Neurosurg 10:118-128, 1990
  33. Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Hadjipanayis CG, et al: Stereotactic radiosurgery for CNS nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. Report of four cases. Pediatr Neurosurg 38:329-333, 2003
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  35. Hoffman HJ, Otsubo H, Hendrick EB, et al: Intracranial germ-cell tumors in children. J Neurosurg 74:545-551, 1991
  36. Hoffman HJ YM, Becker LE et al: Experience with pineal region umors in children: experiences at the Hospital for Sick Children. Concept Pediatr Neurosurger 4, 1983
  37. Horowitz MB, Hall WA: Central nervous system germinomas. A review. Arch Neurol 48:652-657, 1991
  38. Horrax G: Extirpation of a huge pinealoma from a patient with pubertas praecox. Arch Neurol 37:385-397, 1937
  39. Jakacki RI, Zeltzer PM, Boyett JM, et al: Survival and prognostic factors following radiation and/or chemotherapy for primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pineal region in infants and children: a report of the Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 13:1377-1383, 1995
  40. Jenkin D, Berry M, Chan H, et al: Pineal region germinomas in childhood treatment considerations. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:541-545, 1990
  41. Jennings MT, Gelman R, Hochberg F: Intracranial germ-cell tumors: natural history and pathogenesis. J Neurosurg 63:155-167, 1985
  42. Jereb B, Zupancic N, Petric J: Intracranial germinoma: report of seven cases. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 7:183-188, 1990
  43. Jia W, Ma Z, Liu IY, et al: Transcallosal interforniceal approach to pineal region tumors in 150 children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:98-103, 2011
  44. Jouvet A, Fevre-Montange M, Besancon R, et al: Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of human pineal gland, and pineal parenchymal tumors. Acta Neuropathol 88:334-348, 1994
  45. Jurkiewicz E, Pakula-Kosciesza I, Rutynowska O, et al: Trilateral retinoblastoma: an institutional experience and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 26:129-132, 2010
  46. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, et al: Role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of pineal parenchymal tumors. Prog Neurol Sur 23:44-58, 2009
  47. Kihlstrom L, Lindquist C, Lindquist M, et al: Stereotactic radiosurgery for tectal low-grade gliomas. Acta Neurochir Suppl 62:55-57, 1994
  48. Kobayashi T, Kida Y, Mori Y: Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors. J Neurooncol 54:301-309, 2001
  49. Kobayashi T, Yoshida J, Ishiyama J, et al: Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for malignant intracranial germ-cell tumors. An experimental and clinical study. J Neurosurg 70:676-681, 1989
  50. Koide O, Watanabe Y, Sato K: Pathological survey of intracranial germinoma and pinealoma in Japan. Cancer 45:2119-2130, 1980
  51. Krause F: Operative Frielegung der Vierhugel, nebst Beobachtungen uber Hirndruk und dekompression. Sentralbl Chir 53:2812-2819, 1926
  52. Lin SR, Crane MD, Lin ZS, et al: Characteristics of calcification in tumors of the pineal gland. Radiology 126:721-726, 1978
  53. Lo Curto M, D’Angelo P, Cecchetto G, et al: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Inl 23:315-322, 2007
  54. Lopez-Munoz F, Molina JD, Rubio G, et al: An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders. J Clin Neurosci 18:1028-1037, 2011
  55. Lokhorst G-J: Descartes and the pineal gland, in Zalta EN (ed):The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, spring 2014 ed, URL = <>
  56. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta neuropathol 114:97-109, 2007
  57. Maarouf M, El Majdoub F, Buhrle C, et al: Pineal parenchymal tumors. Management with interstitial iodine-125 radiosurgery. Strahlenther Onkol 186:127-134, 2010
  58. Mann JR, Gray ES, Thornton C, et al: Mature and immature extracranial teratomas in children: the UK Children’s Cancer Study Group Experience. J Clin Oncol 26:3590-3597, 2008
  59. Matsumoto K, Higashi H, Tomita S, et al: Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium). Acta Neurochirurg 136:21-28, 1995
  60. Matsutani M: Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for CNS germ cell tumors–the Japanese experience. J neurooncol 54:311-316, 2001
  61. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K, et al: Combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 14:59-62, 1998
  62. Mena H, Rushing EJ, Ribas JL, et al: Tumors of pineal parenchymal cells: a correlation of histological features, including nucleolar organizer regions, with survival in 35 cases. Hum Pathol 26:20-30, 1995
  63. Nakagawa K, Aoki Y, Akanuma A, et al: Radiation therapy of intracranial germ cell tumors with radiosensitivity assessment. Radiat Med 10:55-61, 1992
  64. Neuwelt EA, Glasberg M, Frenkel E, et al: Malignant pineal region tumors. A clinico-pathological study. J Neurosurg 51:597-607, 1979
  65. Pendl G, Vorkapic P, Koniyama M: Microsurgery of midbrain lesions. Neurosurgery 26:641-648, 1990
  66. Peugniez C, Dewas S, Coche-Dequeant B, et al: Use of conventional fractionation with cyberknife in children: a report of 5 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 32:472-475, 2010
  67. Phi JH, Kim JH, Eun KM, et al: Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a distinct differentiation pattern from that of medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5:608-614, 2010
  68. Pollack IF, Pang D, Albright AL: The long-term outcome in children with late-onset aqueductal stenosis resulting from benign intrinsic tectal tumors. J Neurosurg 80:681-688, 1994
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  71. Recinos PF, Raza SM, Jallo GI, et al: Use of a minimally invasive tubular retraction system for deep-seated tumors in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:516-521, 2011
  72. Reddy AT, Janss AJ, Phillips PC, et al: Outcome for children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Cancer 88:2189-2193, 2000
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  74. Saitoh M, Tamaki N, Kokunai T, et al: Clinico-biological behavior of germ-cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 7:246-250, 1991
  75. Sakai N, Yamada H, Andoh T, et al: Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors. A retrospective analysis with special reference to long-term results of treatment and the behavior of rare types of tumors. Acta Oncol 27:43-50, 1988
  76. Sano K: Pineal region tumors: problems in pathology and treatment. Clin Neurosurg 30:59-91, 1983
  77. Sawamura Y, Shirato H, Ikeda J, et al: Induction chemotherapy followed by reduced-volume radiation therapy for newly diagnosed central nervous system germinoma. J Neurosurg 88:66-72, 1998
  78. Schild SE, Scheithauer BW, Schomberg PJ, et al: Pineal parenchymal tumors. Clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. Cancer 72:870-880, 1993
  79. Sebag-Montefiore DJ, Douek E, Kingston JE, et al: Intracranial germ cell tumours: I. Experience with platinum based chemotherapy and implications for curative chemoradiotherapy. Clin Oncol 4:345-350, 1992
  80. Shibamoto Y, Oda Y, Yamashita J, et al: The role of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in radiotherapy planning for intracranial germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29:1089-1094, 1994
  81. Shibamoto Y, Takahashi M, Abe M: Reduction of the radiation dose for intracranial germinoma: a prospective study. Br J Cancer 70:984-989, 1994
  82. Sood S, Nundkumar N, Ham SD: Interhemispheric endoscopic resection of large intraventricular and thalamic tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:596-599, 2011
  83. Squires LA, Allen JC, Abbott R, Epstein FJ: Focal tectal tumors: management and prognosis. Neurology 44:953-956, 1994
  84. Stein BM: The infratentorial supracerebellar approach to pineal lesions. J Neurosurg 35:197-202, 1971
  85. Sugiyama K, Uozumi T, Kiya K, et al: Intracranial germ-cell tumor with synchronous lesions in the pineal and suprasellar regions: report of six cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 38:114-120, 1992
  86. Takeshima H, Kuratsu J: A review of soluble c-kit (s-kit) as a novel tumor marker and possible molecular target for the treatment of CNS germinoma. Surg Neurol 60:321-324; discussion 324-325, 2003
  87. Tamaki N, Yin D: Therapeutic strategies and surgical results for pineal region tumours. J Clin Neurosci : 7:125-128, 2000
  88. Tate M, Sughrue ME, Rutkowski MJ, et al: The long-term postsurgical prognosis of patients with pineoblastoma. Cancer 118:173-179, 2012
  89. Tseng CK, Tsang NM, Jaing TH, et al: Outcome of central nervous system germinoma treatment by chemoradiation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 33:e138-142, 2011
  90. Turgut AT, Karakas HM, Ozsunar Y, et al: Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study. Pathophysiology 15:41-48, 2008
  91. Uematsu Y, Tsuura Y, Miyamoto K, et al: The recurrence of primary intracranial germinomas. Special reference to germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell). J Neurooncol 13:247-256, 1992
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