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References for Cervical Spine Trauma in Children

This page was last updated on November 25th, 2022

  1. Abou Madawi A, Solanki G, Casey AT, et al: Variation of the groove in the axis vertebra for the vertebral artery. Implications for instrumentation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 79:820823, 1997
  2. Ahuja CS, Nori S, Tetreault L, et al: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury-Repair and Regeneration. Neurosurgery 80:S9-S22, 2017
  3. Anderson RC, Kan P, Hansen KW, et al: Cervical spine clearance after trauma in children. Neurosurg Focus 20:E3, 2006
  4. Brooks AL, Jenkins EB: Atlanto-axial arthrodesis by the wedge compression method. J Bone Joint Surg Am 60:279-284, 1978
  5. Brown RL, Brunn MA, Garcia VF: Cervical spine injuries in children: a review of 103 patients treated consecutively at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Surg 36:1107-1114, 2001
  6. Castro I, Santos DP, Christoph Dde H, et al: The history of spinal surgery for disc disease: an illustrated timeline. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63:701-706, 2005
  7. Cattell HS, Filtzer DL: Pseudosubluxation and other normal variations in the cervical spine in children. A study of one hundred and sixty children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 47:1295-1309, 1965
  8. Cheek W: Pediatric Neurosurgery:  Surgery of the Developing Nervous System. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1989
  9. Chen M, Yang S, Yang C, et al: Outcomes observed during a 1-year clinical and radiographic follow-up of patients treated for 1- or 2-level cervical degenerative disease using a biodegradable anterior cervical plate. J Neurosurg Spine 25:205-212, 2016
  10. Curran C, Dietrich AM, Bowman MJ, et al: Pediatric cervical-spine immobilization: achieving neutral position? J Trauma 39:729-732, 1995
  11. Dickman CA, Sonntag VK, Papadopoulos SM, et al: The interspinous method of posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis. J Neurosurg 74:190-198, 1991
  12. Dickman CA, Zabramski JM, Hadley MN, et al: Pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities: report of 26 cases and review of the literature. J Spinal Disord 4:296-305, 1991
  13. Dogan S, Safavi-Abbasi S, Theodore N, et al: Pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries: origins, management, and outcome in 51 patients. Neurosurg Focus 20:E1, 2006
  14. Dweik A, Van den Brande E, Kossmann T, et al: History of cervical spine surgery: from nihilism to advanced reconstructive surgery. Spinal Cord 51:809-814, 2013
  15. Fisher CG, Dvorak MF, Leith J, et al: Comparison of outcomes for unstable lower cervical flexion teardrop fractures managed with halo thoracic vest versus anterior corpectomy and plating. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27:160-166, 2002
  16. Furlan JC, Sakakibara BM, Miller WC, et al: Global incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Can J Neurol Sci40:456-464, 2013
  17. Goel A, Desai KI, Muzumdar DP: Atlantoaxial fixation using plate and screw method: a report of 160 treated patients. Neurosurgery 51:1351-1356; discussion 1356-1357, 2002
  18. Griffin M, Opitz J, Kurland L, et al: Traumatic spinal cord injury in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1981. . Am J Epidemiol121:884-895, 1985
  19. Hamilton MG, Myles ST: Pediatric spinal injury: review of 174 hospital admissions. J Neurosurg 77:700-704, 1992
  20. Hedequist D, Hresko T, Proctor M: Modern cervical spine instrumentation in children. Spine 33:379-383, 2008
  21. Hedequist DJ: Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine. World J Orthop 5:94-99, 2014
  22. Hwang SW, Gressot LV, Rangel-Castilla L, et al: Outcomes of instrumented fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. J Neurosurg Spine 17:397-409, 2012
  23. Kewalramani LS, Tori JA: Spinal cord trauma in children. Neurologic patterns, radiologic features, and pathomechanics of injury. Spine 5:11-18, 1980
  24. Kokoska ER, Keller MS, Rallo MC, et al: Characteristics of pediatric cervical spine injuries. JPediatr Surg36:100-105, 2001
  25. Leonard JR, Jaffe DM, Kuppermann N, et al: Cervical spine injury patterns in children. Pediatrics133:e1179-1188, 2014
  26. Li XF, Dai LY, Lu H, et al: A systematic review of the management of hangman’s fractures. Eur Spine J15:257-269, 2006
  27. Limpaphayom N, Skaggs DL, McComb G, et al: Complications of halo use in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:779-784, 2009
  28. Lustrin ES, Karakas SP, Ortiz AO, et al: Pediatric cervical spine: normal anatomy, variants, and trauma. Radiographics23:539-560, 2003
  29. Madawi AA, Casey AT, Solanki GA, et al: Radiological and anatomical evaluation of the atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation technique. J Neurosurg 86:961-968, 1997
  30. Magerl F, Seemann P-S: Stable posterior fusion of the atlas and axis by transarticular screw fixation, in Kehr P, Weidner A, Cervical Spine Research Society (eds): Cervical Spine I.New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp 322-327
  31. Marketos SG, Skiadas P: Hippocrates. The father of spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)24:1381-1387, 1999
  32. McCall T, Fassett D, Brockmeyer D: Cervical spine trauma in children: a review. Neurosurg Focus 20:E5, 2006
  33. McGrory BJ, Klassen RA, Chao EY, et al: Acute fractures and dislocations of the cervical spine in children and adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg Am75:988-995, 1993
  34. Moftakhar R, Trost GR: Anterior cervical plates: a historical perspective. Neurosurg Focus 16:E8, 2004
  35. Osenbach RK, Menezes AH: Pediatric spinal cord and vertebral column injury. Neurosurgery 30:385-390, 1992
  36. Osenbach RK, Menezes AH: Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children. Pediatr Neurosci 15:168-174; discussion 175, 1989
  37. Pang D, Li V: Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation: part 3-a prospective study of the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of children with alantoaxial rotatory fixation. Neurosurgery 57:954-972; discussion 954-972, 2005
  38. Pang D, Nemzek WR, Zovickian J: Atlanto-occipital dislocation–part 2: The clinical use of (occipital) condyle-C1 interval, comparison with other diagnostic methods, and the manifestation, management, and outcome of atlanto-occipital dislocation in children. Neurosurgery 61:995-1015; discussion 1015, 2007
  39. Pang D, Nemzek WR, Zovickian J: Atlanto-occipital dislocation: part 1–normal occipital condyle-C1 interval in 89 children. Neurosurgery 61:514-521; discussion 521, 2007
  40. Pang D, Pollack IF: Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children–the SCIWORA syndrome. J Trauma 29:654-664, 1989
  41. Patel JC, Tepas JJ, 3rd, Mollitt DL, et al: Pediatric cervical spine injuries: defining the disease. J Pediatr Surg 36:373-376, 2001
  42. Rahimi-Movaghar V, Sayyah MK, Akbari H, et al: Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in developing countries: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology41:65-85, 2013
  43. Rekate HL, Theodore N, Sonntag VK, et al: Pediatric spine and spinal cord trauma. State of the art for the third millennium. Childs Nerv Syst 15:743-750, 1999
  44. Rozzelle CJ, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, et al: Management of pediatric cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery 72 Suppl 2:205-226, 2013
  45. Shacked I, Ram Z, Hadani M: The anterior cervical approach for traumatic injuries to the cervical spine in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res 292:144-150, 1993
  46. Spence KF, Jr., Decker S, Sell KW: Bursting atlantal fracture associated with rupture of the transverse ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 52:543-549, 1970
  47. Steinmetz MP, Lechner RM, Anderson JS: Atlantooccipital dislocation in children: presentation, diagnosis, and management. Neurosurg Focus 14:ecp1, 2003
  48. Subach BR, McLaughlin MR, Albright AL, et al: Current management of pediatric atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)23:2174-2179, 1998
  49. Sullivan J: Fractures of the Spine in Children, ed 2.Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998
  50. Traynelis VC, Marano GD, Dunker RO, et al: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation. Case report. J Neurosurg 65:863-870, 1986
  51. Viccellio P, Simon H, Pressman BD, et al: A prospective multicenter study of cervical spine injury in children. Pediatrics 108:E20, 2001
  52. Wright N, Lauryssen C: Techniques of posterior C1-2 stabilization. Techniques in Neurosurgery 4(4):286-297, 1998
  53. Advanced trauma fife support student manual 9thEdition. American College of Surgeons 2013 (  [Accessed 04 February 2019]
  54. Chaeung V, Hoshide R, Bansal V, et al: Methylprednisolone in the management of spinal cord injuries: Lessons from randomized, controlled trials. Surg Neurol Int. 6: 142. Epub  2015 Aug 24. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.163452
  55. Hall GC, Kinsman MJ, Nazar RC, et al: Atlanto-occipital dislocation.  World J Orthop 6(2): 236-43, 2015
  56. Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al: Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. NEJM 343:  p.94, 2000.
  57. Doran SE, Papadopoulos SM, Miller LD: Internal fixation of the spine using a braided titanium cable: clinical results and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.  Neurosurgery 38(3): 493-6; discussion 496-7, 1996
  58. Smucker JD, Rhee JM, Singh K, et al: Increased swelling complications associated with off-label usage of rhBMP-2 in the anterior cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31(24): 2813-9, 2006
  59. Cogan JD, Vnencak-Jones CL, Phillips JA, et al: Gross BMPR2 gene rearrangements constitute a new cause for primary pulmonary hypertension. Genet Med 7(3): 169-74, 2005
  60. Herman MJ, Brown KO, Sponselier PD, et al: Pediatric Cervical Spine Clearance. A consensus statement and algorithm from the Pediatric Cervical Spine Clearance Working Group. J Bone Joint Surg Am 101 (1): e1, 2019

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