Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Install/Install App' to create a shortcut app

References for Chiari Malformations in Children

This page was last updated on November 25th, 2022

  1. Armonda RA, Citrin CM, Foley KT, et al: Quantitative cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging of Chiari I malformations: an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Neurosurgery 35:214-223; discussion 223-214, 1994
  2. Batzdorf U: Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia. Evaluation of surgical therapy by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 68:726-730, 1988
  3. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia Related to Abnormalities of the Craniovertebral Junction. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991
  4. Batzdorf U: Syringomyelia, Chiari Malformations, and Hydromyelia, ed 4. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996
  5. Bhadelia RA, Bogdan AR, Wolpert SM et al: Cerebrospinal fluid flow waveforms: analysis in patients with Chiari I malformation by means of gated phase-contrast MR imaging velocity measurements. Radiology 196:195-202, 1995
  6. Charney EB, Rorke LB, Sutton LN, et al: Management of Chiari II complications in infants with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr 111:364-371, 1987
  7. Dyste GN, Menezes AH, VanGilder JC: Symptomatic Chiari malformations. An analysis of presentation, management, and long-term outcome. J Neurosurg 71:159-168, 1989
  8. Elster AD, Chen MY: Chiari I malformations: clinical and radiologic reappraisal. Radiology 183:347-353, 1992
  9. Hida K, Iwasaki Y, Koyanagi I, et al: Surgical indication and results of foramen magnum decompression versus syringosubarachnoid shunting for syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Neurosurgery 37:673-678; discussion 678-679, 1995
  10. skandar B, Oakes W: The Chiari malformations, in Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 1. New York: Thieme, 1999, pp165-87
  11. Iskandar BJ, Oakes WJ, McLaughlin C, et al: Terminal syringohydromyelia and occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg 81:513-519, 1994
  12. Klekamp J, Batzdorf U, Samii M, et al: Treatment of syringomyelia associated with arachnoid scarring caused by arachnoiditis or trauma. J Neurosurg 86:233-240, 1997
  13. La Marca F, Herman M, Grant JA, et al: Presentation and management of hydromyelia in children with Chiari type-II malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 26:57-67, 1997
  14. Levy WJ, Mason L, Hahn JF: Chiari malformation presenting in adults: a surgical experience in 127 cases. Neurosurgery 12:377-390, 1983
  15. Mampalam TJ, Andrews BT, Gelb D, et al: Presentation of type I Chiari malformation after head trauma. Neurosurgery 23:760-762, 1988
  16. McGirt MJ, Attenello FJ, Atiba A, et al: Symptom recurrence after suboccipital decompression for pediatric Chiari I malformation: analysis of 256 consecutive cases. Childs Nerv Syst 24: 1333-1339, 2008
  17. Medow JE, Sansone J, Iskandar BJ: Syringomyelia and hydromyelia, in Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 444-473
  18. Menezes AH: Chiari I malformations and hydromyelia–complications. Pediatr Neurosurg 17:146-154, 1991
  19. Mikulis DJ, Diaz O, Egglin TK, et al: Variance of the position of the cerebellar tonsils with age: preliminary report. Radiology 183:725-728, 1992
  20. Milhorat TH, Capocelli AL Jr, Anzil AP, et al: Pathological basis of spinal cord cavitation in syringomyelia: analysis of 105 autopsy cases. J Neurosurg 82:802-812, 1995
  21. Milhorat TH, Johnson RW, Milhorat RH, et al: Clinicopathological correlations in syringomyelia using axial magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery 37:206-213, 1995
  22. Milhorat TH, Miller JI, Johnson WD, et al: Anatomical basis of syringomyelia occurring with hindbrain lesions. Neurosurgery 32:748-754; discussion 754, 1993
  23. Muhonen MG, Menezes AH, Sawin PD, et al: Scoliosis in pediatric Chiari malformations without myelodysplasia. J Neurosurg 77:69-77, 1992
  24. Nagib MG: An approach to symptomatic children (ages 4-14 years) with Chiari type I malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 21:31-35, 1994
  25. Naidich TP, McLone DG, Fulling KH: The Chiari II malformation: Part IV. The hindbrain deformity. Neuroradiology 25:179-197, 1983
  26. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. III: ventricles and cisterns. Radiology 134:657-663, 1980
  27. Naidich TP, Pudlowski RM, Naidich JB, et al: Computed tomographic signs of the Chiari II malformation. Part I: Skull and dural partitions. Radiology 134:65-71, 1980
  28. Nohria V, Oakes WJ: Chiari I malformation: a review of 43 patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 16:222-227, 1990-1991
  29. Oakes WJ: Chiari malformations, hydromyelia, and syringomyelia, in Wilkins R, Rengachary S (eds): Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 3593-3616
  30. Oakes WJ: The Chiari malformations of the child, in Menezes AH, Sonntag V (eds): Principles of Spinal Surgery ed 1. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 379-394
  31. Ono A, Ueyama K, Okada A, et al: Adult scoliosis in syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Spine 27:E23-28, 2002
  32. Paul KS, Lye RH, Strang FA, et al: Arnold-Chiari malformation. Review of 71 cases. J Neurosurg 58:183-187, 1983
  33. Potter K, Saifuddin A: Pictorial review: MRI of chronic spinal cord injury. Br J Radiol 76:347-352, 2003
  34. Samii M, Klekamp J: Surgical results of 100 intramedullary tumors in relation to accompanying syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 35:865-873; discussion 873, 1994
  35. Samuelsson L, Bergstrom K, Thuomas KA, et al: MR imaging of syringohydromyelia and Chiari malformations in myelomeningocele patients with scoliosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 8:539-546, 1987
  36. Schmitt HP: “Inverse Chiari type II syndrome” in untreated hydrocephalus and its relationship to typical Arnold-Chiari syndrome. Brain Dev 3:271-275, 1981
  37. Silberstein M, Tress BM, Hennessy O: Delayed neurologic deterioration in the patient with spinal trauma: role of MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13:1373-1381, 1992
  38. Tubbs RS, McGirt MJ, Oakes WJ: Surgical experience in 130 pediatric patients with Chiari I malformations. J Neurosurg 99:291-296, 2003
  39. Wealthall SR, Whittaker GE, Greenwood N: The relationship of apnoea and stridor in spina bifida to other unexplained infant deaths. Dev Med Child Neurol 16:107-116, 1974
  40. Worley G, Erwin CW, Schuster JM, et al: BAEPs in infants with myelomeningocele and later development of Chiari II malformation-related brainstem dysfunction. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:707-715, 1994
  41. Massimi L, Peppucci E, Peraio S, et al: History of Chiari type I malformation. Neurol Sci 32 Suppl 3: S263-5, 2011
  42. Sandoval-Garcia C, Iskandar BJ: Research on the pathophysiology of Chiari I-related symptoms and syringomyelia, with emphasis on dynamic MRI techniques, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 171-180
  43. Furuya K, Sano K, Segawa H, et al: Symptomatic tonsillar ectopia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64:221–226, 1998
  44. Meadows J, Kraut M, Guarnieri M, et al: Asymptomatic Chiari type I malformations identified on magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 92:920-926, 2000
  45. Strahle J, Muraszko KM, Kapurch J, et al: Chiari malformation type I and syrinx in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:205-13, 2011
  46. Loukas M, Shayota BJ, Oelhafen K, et al: Associated disorders of Chiari type I malformations: a review. Neurosurg Focus 31:E3, 2011
  47. Boyles AL, Enterline DS, Hammock PH, et al: Phenotypic definition of Chiari type I malformation coupled with high-density SNP genome screen shows significant evidence for linkage to regions on chromosomes 9 and 15. Am J Med Genet 140: 2776-2785, 2006
  48. Speer MC, George TM, Enterline DS, et al: A genetic hypothesis for Chiari I malformation with or without syringomyelia. Neurosurg Focus 8(3):E12, 2000
  49. Tubb RS, Pugh, JA, Oakes WJ: Chiari malformations, in Winn HR (ed): Youmans Neurological Surgery, ed 6. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2011, pp 1918 – 1927
  50. Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Hankinson TC, et al: The first posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation: the contributions of Cornelis Joachimus van Houweninge Graftdijk and a review of the infancy of “Chiari decompression.” Childs Nerv Syst 27:1851-1856, 2011
  51. Bejjani GK: Definition of the adult Chiari malformation: a brief historical overview. Neurosurg Focus 11:E1, 2001
  52. Tubbs RS, Oakes WJ: The Chiari malformations: A historical context, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 5-12
  53. Gardner WJ, Goodall RJ: The surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation in adults; an explanation of its mechanism and importance of encephalography in diagnosis. J Neurosurg 7:199-206, 1950
  54. Tubbs RS, Oakes, WJ: Associated disorders of Chiari type I malformations, in Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS (eds): The Chiari Malformations: a Comprehensive Text, ed 1. New York: Elsevier, 2013, pp 127-133
  55. Bollo RJ, Riva-Cambrin J, Brockmeyer MM, et al: Complex Chiari malformations in children: an analysis of preoperative risk factors for occipitocervical fusion: Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr 10:134-141, 2012
  56. Rocque BG, George TM, Kestle J, et al: Treatment practices for Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia: results of a survey of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:430-437, 2011
  57. Hankinson T, Tubbs RS, Wellons JC: Duraplasty or not? An evidence-based review of the pediatric Chiari I malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 27:35-40, 2011
  58. Kalb S, Perez-Orribo L, Mahan M, et al: Evaluation of operative procedures for symptomatic outcome after decompression surgery for Chiari type I malformation. J Clin Neurosci 19:1268-1272, 2012
  59. Chiari H: Über Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydro- cephalie des Grosshirns. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 17:1172–1175, 1891
  60. Chiari H: Über Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Me- dulla oblongata infolge von kongeni- taler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns. Denkschr Akad Wiss Wien 63:71–116, 1896
  61. Penfield W, Coburn DF: Arnold-Chiari malformation and its operative treatment. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 40: 328-336, 1938
  62. von Houwenige Graftdijk: Heelkünde voor Den Medicus Practicus (Doctorial Thesis). University of Leiden, 1932
  63. Russell DS, Donald C: The mechanism of internal hydrocephalus in spina bifida. Brain 58: 203-215, 1935
  64. McConnell AA, Parker HL: A deformity of the hind-brain associated with internal hydrocephalus. Its relation to the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Brain 61: 415-429, 1938

Your donations keep us going

The ISPN Guide is free to use, but we rely on donations to fund our ongoing work and to maintain more than a thousand pages of information created to disseminate the most up-to-date knowledge in the field of paediatric neurosurgery.

By making a donation to The ISPN Guide you are also indirectly helping the many thousands of children around the world whose treatment depends on well-informed surgeons.

Please consider making a donation today.

Use the app

The ISPN Guide can be used as a standalone app, both on mobile devices and desktop computers. It’s quick and easy to use.

Fully featured

Free registration grants you full access to The Guide and host of featured designed to help further your own education.

Stay updated

The ISPN Guide continues to expand both in breadth and depth. Join our mailing list to stay up-to-date with our progress.