Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen/Install App' to create a shortcut app

References for Cavernous Malformations in Children

This page was last updated on April 8th, 2024

  1. Bacigaluppi S, Retta SF, Pileggi S, et al: Genetic and cellular basis of cerebral cavernous malformations: implications for clinical management. Clin Genet 83:7-14, 2013
  2. Barker FG, 2nd, Amin-Hanjani S, Butler WE, et al: Temporal clustering of hemorrhages from untreated cavernous malformations of the central nervous system. Neurosurgery 49:15-24; discussion 24-15, 2001
  3. Batra S, Lin D, Recinos PF, et al: Cavernous malformations: natural history, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol 5:659-670, 2009
  4. Baumann CR, Acciarri N, Bertalanffy H, et al: Seizure outcome after resection of supratentorial cavernous malformations: a study of 168 patients. Epilepsia 48:559-563, 2007
  5. Baumgartner JE, Ater JL, Ha CS, et al: Pathologically proven cavernous angiomas of the brain following radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg 39:201-207, 2003
  6. Bertalanffy H, Benes L, Miyazawa T, et al: Cerebral cavernomas in the adult. Review of the literature and analysis of 72 surgically treated patients. Neurosurg Rev 25:1-53; discussion 54-55, 2002
  7. Broggi G, Ferroli P, Franzini A: Cavernous malformation and seizures: Lesionectomy or epilepsy surgery?, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 108-113
  8. Brown A, Thompson B, Spetzler R: The two-point method: evaluating brain stem lesions. BNI Q 12:20-24, 1996
  9. Campbell PG, Jabbour P, Yadla S, et al: Emerging clinical imaging techniques for cerebral cavernous malformations: a systematic review. Neurosurg Focus 29:E6, 2010
  10. Casazza M, Broggi G, Franzini A,,et al: Supratentorial cavernous angiomas and epileptic seizures: preoperative course and postoperative outcome. Neurosurgery 39:26-32; discussion 32-24, 1996
  11. Clatterbuck RE, Moriarity JL, Elmaci I, et al: Dynamic nature of cavernous malformations: a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study with volumetric analysis. J Neurosurg 93:981-986, 2000
  12. Cohen DS, Zubay GP, Goodman RR: Seizure outcome after lesionectomy for cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg 83:237-242, 1995
  13. Craig HD, Gunel M, Cepeda O, et al: Multilocus linkage identifies two new loci for a mendelian form of stroke, cerebral cavernous malformation, at 7p15-13 and 3q25.2-27. Hum Mol Genet 7:1851-1858, 1998
  14. D’Angelo R, Marini V, Rinaldi C, et al: Mutation analysis of CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3 genes in a cohort of Italian patients with cerebral cavernous malformation. Brain Pathol 21:215-224, 2011
  15. de Oliveira JG, Lekovic GP, Safavi-Abbasi S, et al: Supracerebellar infratentorial approach to cavernous malformations of the brainstem: surgical variants and clinical experience with 45 patients. Neurosurgery 66:389-399, 2010
  16. Dejana E, Orsenigo F: Endothelial adherens junctions at a glance. J Cell Sci 126:2545-2549, 2013
  17. Denier C, Labauge P, Bergametti F, et al: Genotype-phenotype correlations in cerebral cavernous malformations patients. Ann Neurol 60:550-556, 2006
  18. Dubovsky J, Zabramski JM, Kurth J, et al: A gene responsible for cavernous malformations of the brain maps to chromosome 7q. Hum Mol Genet 4:453-458, 1995
  19. Er U, Spetzler R, Cardia A: Deep-seated cerebral carvernous malformations, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 71-77
  20. Feiz-Erfan I, Zabramski J, Kim L, et al: Natural history of cavernous malformations of the central nervous system, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 3-10
  21. Ferroli P, Casazza M, Marras C, et al: Cerebral cavernomas and seizures: a retrospective study on 163 patients who underwent pure lesionectomy. Neurol Sci 26:390-394, 2006
  22. Fritschi JA, Reulen HJ, Spetzler RF, et al: Cavernous malformations of the brain stem. A review of 139 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 130:35-46, 1994
  23. Glading A, Han J, Stockton RA, et al: KRIT-1/CCM1 is a Rap1 effector that regulates endothelial cell cell junctions. J Cell Biol 179:247-254, 2007
  24. Gomori JM, Grossman RI, Goldberg HI, et al: Occult cerebral vascular malformations: high-field MR imaging. Radiology 158:707-713, 1986
  25. Jonutis AJ, Sondheimer FK, Klein HZ, et al: Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma with angiographically demonstrated pathologic vasculature. Neuroradiology 3:57-63, 1971
  26. Kattapong VJ, Hart BL, Davis LE: Familial cerebral cavernous angiomas: clinical and radiologic studies. Neurology 45:492-497, 1995
  27. Kim DS, Park YG, Choi JU, et al: An analysis of the natural history of cavernous malformations. Surg Neurol 48:9-17; discussion 17-18, 1997
  28. Kim W, Stramotas S, Choy W, et al: Prognostic factors for post-operative seizure outcomes after cavernous malformation treatment. J Clin Neurosci 18:877-880, 2011
  29. Klopfenstein J, Feiz-Erfan I, Spetxler R: Brain stem cavernous malformations, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 78-87
  30. Kramer RA, Wing SD: Computed tomography of angiographically occult cerebral vascular malformations. Radiology 123:649-652, 1977
  31. Labauge P, Brunereau L, Laberge S, et al: Prospective follow-up of 33 asymptomatic patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurology 57:1825-1828, 2001
  32. Labauge P, Brunereau L, Levy C, et al: The natural history of familial cerebral cavernomas: a retrospective MRI study of 40 patients. Neuroradiology 42:327-332, 2000
  33. Labauge P, Denier C, Bergametti F, et al: Genetics of cavernous angiomas. Lancet Neurol 6:237-244, 2007
  34. Lena G, Ternier J, Paz-Paredes A, et al: [Central nervous system cavernomas in children]. Neurochirurgie 53:223-237, 2007
  35. Leveque M, Carron R, Bartolomei F, et al: Radiosurgical treatment for epilepsy associated with cavernomas. Prog Neurol Surg 27:157-165, 2013
  36. Liliequist B: Angiography in intracerebral cavernous hemangioma. Neuroradiology 9:69-72, 1975
  37. Lunsford LD, Khan AA, Niranjan A, et al: Stereotactic radiosurgery for symptomatic solitary cerebral cavernous malformations considered high risk for resection. J Neurosurg 113:23-29, 2010
  38. Margolis G, Odom GL, Woodhall B, et al: The role of small angiomatous malformations in the production of intracerebral hematomas. J Neurosurg 8:564-575, 1951
  39. Mathiesen T, Edner G, Kihlstrom L: Deep and brainstem cavernomas: a consecutive 8-year series. J Neurosurg 99:31-37, 2003
  40. McCormick W: Pathology of vascular malformation of the brain, in Wilson C, Stein B (eds): Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 44-63
  41. Mottolese C, Hermier M, Szathmari A: Cavernous malformations in children and adolescents, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 114-123
  42. Niranjan A, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery guidelines for the management of patients with intracranial cavernous malformations. Prog Neurol Surg 27:166-175, 2013
  43. Numaguchi Y, Kishikawa T, Fukui M, et al: Prolonged injection angiography for diagnosing intracranial cavernous hemangiomas. Radiology 131:137-138, 1979
  44. Otten P, Pizzolato GP, Rilliet B, et al: [131 cases of cavernous angioma (cavernomas) of the CNS, discovered by retrospective analysis of 24,535 autopsies]. Neurochirurgie 35:82-83, 128-131, 1989
  45. Poorthuis M, Samarasekera N, Kontoh K, et al: Comparative studies of the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations in adults: systematic review. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 155:643-649, 2013
  46. Porter RW, Detwiler PW, Spetzler RF, et al: Cavernous malformations of the brainstem: experience with 100 patients. J Neurosurg 90:50-58, 1999
  47. Pozzati E: Systemic cavernous malformation, in Lanzino G, Spetzler R (eds): Cavernous Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 41-47
  48. Pozzati E, Giuliani G, Nuzzo G, et al: The growth of cerebral cavernous angiomas. Neurosurgery 25:92-97, 1989
  49. Pozzati E, Marliani AF, Zucchelli M, et al: The neurovascular triad: mixed cavernous, capillary, and venous malformations of the brainstem. J Neurosurg 107:1113-1119, 2007
  50. Pozzati E, Padovani R, Morrone B, et al: Cerebral cavernous angiomas in children. J Neurosurg 53:826-832, 1980
  51. Rao VR, Pillai SM, Shenoy KT, et al: Hypervascular cavernous angioma at angiography. Neuroradiology 18:211-214, 1979
  52. Revencu N, Vikkula M: Cerebral cavernous malformation: new molecular and clinical insights. J Med Genet 43:716-721, 2006
  53. Rigamonti D, Drayer BP, Johnson PC, et al: The MRI appearance of cavernous malformations (angiomas). J Neurosurg 67:518-524, 1987
  54. Robinson JR, Awad IA, Little JR: Natural history of the cavernous angioma. J Neurosurg 75:709-714, 1991
  55. Rosenow F, Alonso-Vanegas MA, Baumgartner C, et al: Cavernoma-related epilepsy: review and recommendations for management. Report of the Surgical Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia 54:2025-2035, 2013
  56. Russell D, Rubinstein L: Pathology of Tumours of the Nervous System. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1977
  57. Russell DS: Spontaneous intracranial hematoma. Proc R Soc Med 47:689-693, 1954
  58. Shi C, Shenkar R, Batjer HH, et al: Oligoclonal immune response in cerebral cavernous malformations. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg 107:1023-1026, 2007
  59. Shi C, Shenkar R, Du H, et al: Immune response in human cerebral cavernous malformations. Stroke 40:1659-1665, 2009
  60. Stavrou I, Baumgartner C, Frischer JM, et al: Long-term seizure control after resection of supratentorial cavernomas: a retrospective single-center study in 53 patients. Neurosurgery 63:888-896; discussion 897, 2008
  61. Steinberg G, Vanefsky M: Management of the patient with an angiographically occult vascular malformation, in Hadley M (ed): Perspectives in Neurological Surgery. St Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, 1994, pp 65-84
  62. Steiner L, Karlsson B, Yen CP, et al: Radiosurgery in cavernous malformations: anatomy of a controversy. J Neurosurg 113:16-21; discussion 21-12, 2010
  63. Stockton RA, Shenkar R, Awad IA, et al: Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity. J Exp Med 207:881-896, 2010
  64. Voigt K, Yasargil MG: Cerebral cavernous haemangiomas or cavernomas. Incidence, pathology, localization, diagnosis, clinical features and treatment. Review of the literature and report of an unusual case. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 19:59-68, 1976
  65. Wang CC, Liu A, Zhang JT, et al: Surgical management of brain-stem cavernous malformations: report of 137 cases. Surg Neurol 59:444-454; discussion 454, 2003
  66. Washington CW, McCoy KE, Zipfel GJ: Update on the natural history of cavernous malformations and factors predicting aggressive clinical presentation. Neurosurg Focus 29:E7, 2010
  67. Wendling LR, Moore JS, Jr., Kieffer SA, et al: Intracerebral venous angioma. Radiology 119:141-147, 1976
  68. Whitehead KJ, Chan AC, Navankasattusas S, et al: The cerebral cavernous malformation signaling pathway promotes vascular integrity via Rho GTPases. Nat Med 15:177-184, 2009
  69. Yadla S, Jabbour PM, Shenkar R, et al: Cerebral cavernous malformations as a disease of vascular permeability: from bench to bedside with caution. Neurosurg Focus 29:E4, 2010
  70. Zabramski JM, Wascher TM, Spetzler RF, et al: The natural history of familial cavernous malformations: results of an ongoing study. J Neurosurg 80:422-432, 1994

Acknowledgment: We thank Miss Emma Y. Yu for preparing the reference part of this chapter.