Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen/Install App' to create a shortcut app

History of Management of Cavernous Malformations in Children

This page was last updated on May 9th, 2017

Understanding of Disease

  • 1951 – autopsy description of cavernous malformation: Attention was called in 1951 to the unknown cause of cerebral hemorrhage in healthy young patients, including children. In some, underlying cavernous malformations were found at autopsy (38). Historically, cavernous malformations were designated as cryptic lesions (57). They are not visualized on conventional arterial angiography (64).
  • 1980s – establishment of incidence: The incidence rate in the population was established through large series of postmortem studies in the 1980s (40, 44).
  • 1990s – description of heritable form: Analysis of familial lesions (predominantly noted in Hispanic kindreds) led to the discovery of the autosomal dominant inherited form of the disease (70).

Technological Development

  • 1970s–1980s – improved imaging leads to treatment: Cavernous malformations had once been thought not to be surgically treatable. However, the advancement of neuroradioimaging techniques such as CT and MRI and the improvement of surgical instruments including the microscope and/or fine surgical tools have led to a new concept for managing these lesions (24, 30, 50, 53).
  • 1990s – stereotactic guidance and IOM: Is is no longer impossible to resect cavernous malformations from the brainstem (22). Stereotactic guidance and electrophysiological monitoring have become the standard supplementary tools to maximize the outcome for resection of these lesions in the brainstem (29).

Your donations keep us going

The ISPN Guide is free to use, but we rely on donations to fund our ongoing work and to maintain more than a thousand pages of information created to disseminate the most up-to-date knowledge in the field of paediatric neurosurgery.

By making a donation to The ISPN Guide you are also indirectly helping the many thousands of children around the world whose treatment depends on well-informed surgeons.

Please consider making a donation today.

Use the app

The ISPN Guide can be used as a standalone app, both on mobile devices and desktop computers. It’s quick and easy to use.

Fully featured

Free registration grants you full access to The Guide and host of featured designed to help further your own education.

Stay updated

The ISPN Guide continues to expand both in breadth and depth. Join our mailing list to stay up-to-date with our progress.