- Used for C1-C2 instability: Instability may be limited to the atlantoaxial joint, e.g., some cases of Down syndrome.
- Instrumented fixation techniques: A number of techniques for atlantoaxial fixation are described including transarticular screw fixation and the C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws (Harms technique) fixation techniques.
- Semi-rigid fixation techniques: An example is the sublaminar wire and bone graft fixation.
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