Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen/Install App' to create a shortcut app

References for Hydrocephalus After Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Infants

This page was last updated on April 8th, 2024

  1. Adams-Chapman I, Hansen NI, Stoll BJ, et al: Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus requiring shunt insertion. Pediatrics 121:e1167-1177, 2008
  2. Ahmann PA, Lazzara A, Dykes FD, et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage in the high-risk preterm infant: incidence and outcome. Ann Neurol 7:118-124, 1980
  3. Akundi RS, Candelario-Jalil E, Hess S, et al: Signal transduction pathways regulating cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia. Glia 51:199-208, 2005
  4. Ancel PY, Marret S, Larroque B, et al: Are maternal hypertension and small-for-gestational age risk factors for severe intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia? Results of the EPIPAGE cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:178-184, 2005
  5. Babcock DS, Han BK: The accuracy of high resolution, real-time ultrasonography of the head in infancy. Radiology 139:665-676, 1981
  6. Beverley DW, Chance GW, Coates CF: Intraventricular haemorrhage–timing of occurrence and relationship to perinatal events. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91:1007-1013, 1984
  7. Brady KM, Easley RB, Tobias JD :Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) treatment in infants with hemorrhage. Paediatr Anaesth 16:1042-1046, 2006
  8. Brouwer MJ, de Vries LS, Pistorius L, et al: Ultrasound measurements of the lateral ventricles in neonates: why, how and when? A systematic review. Acta Paediatr 99:1298-1306, 2010
  9. Brydon HL, Bayston R, Hayward R, et al: The effect of protein and blood cells on the flow-pressure characteristics of shunts. Neurosurgery 38:498-504; discussion 505, 1996
  10. Buxton N, Macarthur D, Mallucci C, et al: Neuroendoscopy in the premature population. Childs Nerv Syst 14:649-652, 1998
  11. Chao CC, Hu S, Molitor TW, et al: Activated microglia mediate neuronal cell injury via a nitric oxide mechanism. J Immunol 149:2736-2741, 1992
  12. Cherian S, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M, et al: The pathogenesis of neonatal post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Brain Pathol 14:305-311, 2004
  13. Cinalli G, Spennato P, Savarese L, et al: Endoscopic aqueductoplasty and placement of a stent in the cerebral aqueduct in the management of isolated fourth ventricle in children. J Neurosurg 104 (1 Suppl):21-27, 2006
  14. Cornips E, Van Calenbergh F, Plets C, et al: Use of external drainage for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in very low birth weight premature infants. Childs Nerv Syst 13:369-374, 1997
  15. Davies MW, Swaminathan M, Chuang SL, et al: Reference ranges for the linear dimensions of the intracranial ventricles in preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 82:F218-223, 2000
  16. de Vries LS, Liem KD, van Dijk K, et al: Early versus late treatment of posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: results of a retrospective study from five neonatal intensive care units in The Netherlands. Acta Paediatr 91:212-217, 2002
  17. Del Bigio MR: Neuropathological changes caused by hydrocephalus. Acta Neuropathol 85:573-585, 1993
  18. Duncan C, Chiang V: Intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, in Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc, New York, 2008, vol 2, pp 145-161
  19. Fernell E, Hagberg G, Hagberg B: Infantile hydrocephalus epidemiology: an indicator of enhanced survival. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 70:F123-128, 1994
  20. Fletcher JM, Landry SH, Bohan TP, et al: Effects of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus on the long-term neurobehavioral development of preterm very-low-birthweight infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 39:596-606, 1997
  21. Garland JS, Buck R, Leviton A: Effect of maternal glucocorticoid exposure on risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in surfactant-treated preterm infants. J Pediatr 126:272-279, 1995
  22. Gopel W, Gortner L, Kohlmann T, et al: Low prevalence of large intraventricular haemorrhage in very low birthweight infants carrying the factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A mutation. Acta Paediatr 90:1021-1024, 2001
  23. Gopel W, Hartel C, Ahrens P, et al: Interleukin-6-174-genotype, sepsis and cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants. Genes Immun 7:65-68, 2006
  24. Gould DB, Phalan FC, Breedveld GJ, et al: Mutations in Col4a1 cause perinatal cerebral hemorrhage and porencephaly. Science 308:1167-1171, 2005
  25. Gould SJ, Howard S, Hope PL, et al: Periventricular intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage in preterm infants: the role of venous infarction. J Pathol 151:197-202, 1987
  26. Greisen G, Andreasen RB: Recombinant factor VIIa in preterm neonates with prolonged prothrombin time. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 14:117-120, 2003
  27. Grogaard JB, Lindstrom DP, Parker RA, et al: Increased survival rate in very low birth weight infants (1500 grams or less): no association with increased incidence of handicaps. J Pediatr 117 (1 Pt 1):139-146, 1990
  28. Haines SJ, Lapointe M: Fibrinolytic agents in the management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants: the evidence. Childs Nerv Syst 15:226-234, 1999
  29. Hambleton G, Wigglesworth JS: Origin of intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm infant. Arch Dis Child 51:651-659, 1976
  30. Hansen AR, Volpe JJ, Goumnerova LC, et al: Intraventricular urokinase for the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurol 17:213-217, 1997
  31. Harding D, Brull D, Humphries SE, et al: Variation in the interleukin-6 gene is associated with impaired cognitive development in children born prematurely: a preliminary study. Pediatr Res 58:117-120, 2005
  32. Harding DR, Humphries SE, Whitelaw A, et al: Cognitive outcome and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene (-765 G/C) variation in the preterm infant. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F108-112, 2007
  33. Heep A, Stoffel-Wagner B, Soditt V, et al: Procollagen I C-propeptide in the cerebrospinal fluid of neonates with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 87:F34-36, 2002
  34. Hudgins RJ: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of infancy. Neurosurg Clin N Am 12:743-751, 2001
  35. Hudgins RJ, Boydston WR, Gilreath CL: Treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant with a ventricular access device. Pediatr Neurosurg 29:309-313, 1998
  36. Hudgins RJ, Boydston WR, Hudgins PA, et al: Intrathecal urokinase as a treatment for intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant. Pediatr Neurosurg 26:281-287, 1997
  37. International PHVD Drug Trial Group: International randomised controlled trial of acetazolamide and furosemide in posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation in infancy. Lancet 352:433-440, 1998
  38. Kadri H, Mawla AA, Kazah J: The incidence, timing, and predisposing factors of germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage (GM/IVH) in preterm neonates. Childs Nerv Syst 22:1086-1090, 2006
  39. Karas CS, Baig MN, Elton SW: Ventriculosubgaleal shunts at Columbus Children’s Hospital: Neurosurgical implant placement in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Neurosurg 107 (3 Suppl):220-223, 2007
  40. Kenet G, Kuperman AA, Strauss T, et al: Neonatal IVH–mechanisms and management. Thromb Res 127 Suppl 3:S120-122, 2011
  41. Kestle J, Drake J, Milner R, et al: Long-term follow-up data from the Shunt Design Trial. Pediatr Neurosurg 33:230-236, 2000
  42. Kirkpatrick M, Engleman H, Minns RA: Symptoms and signs of progressive hydrocephalus. Arch Dis Child 64:124-128, 1989
  43. Kluckow M: Low systemic blood flow and pathophysiology of the preterm transitional circulation. Early Hum Dev 81:429-437, 2005
  44. Korobkin R: The relationship between head circumference and the development of communicating hydrocephalus in infants following intraventricular hemmorrhage. Pediatrics 56:74-77, 1975
  45. Leliefeld PH, Gooskens RH, Tulleken CA, et al: Noninvasive detection of the distinction between progressive and compensated hydrocephalus in infants: is it possible? J Neurosurg Pediatr 5:562-568, 2010
  46. Lemons JA, Bauer CR, Oh W, et al: Very low birth weight outcomes of the National Institute of Child health and human development neonatal research network, January 1995 through December 1996. NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 107 (1):E1, 2001
  47. Levene MI: Measurement of the growth of the lateral ventricles in preterm infants with real-time ultrasound. Arch Dis Child 56:900-904, 1981
  48. Leviton A, Dammann O: Coagulation, inflammation, and the risk of neonatal white matter damage. Pediatr Res 55:541-545, 2004
  49. Leviton A, Fenton T, Kuban KC, et al: Labor and delivery characteristics and the risk of germinal matrix hemorrhage in low birth weight infants. J Child Neurol 6:35-40, 1991
  50. Leviton A, Kuban KC, Pagano M, et al: Antenatal corticosteroids appear to reduce the risk of postnatal germinal matrix hemorrhage in intubated low birth weight newborns. Pediatrics 91:1083-1088, 1993
  51. Leviton A, Paneth N, Reuss ML, et al: Maternal infection, fetal inflammatory response, and brain damage in very low birth weight infants. Developmental Epidemiology Network Investigators. Pediatr Res 46:566-575, 1999
  52. Liao MF, Chaou WT, Tsao LY, et al: Ultrasound measurement of the ventricular size in newborn infants. Brain Dev 8:262-268, 1986
  53. Lim LW, Volkodav OV: Germinal matrix hemorrhage of prematurity: treatment approaches and outcomes in a single institutional review in the Ukraine. Pediatr Neurosurg 45:132-140, 2009
  54. Limbrick DD, Jr., Mathur A, Johnston JM, et al: Neurosurgical treatment of progressive posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation in preterm infants: a 10-year single-institution study. J Neurosurg Pediatr 6:224-230, 2010
  55. Linder N, Haskin O, Levit O, et al: Risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight premature infants: a retrospective case-control study. Pediatrics 111 (5 Pt 1):e590-595, 2003
  56. Luciano M, Pattisapu JV, Wickremesekera A: Infantile posthemorhhagic hydrocephalus, in Youmans JR (ed): Neurological Surgery, ed 2. Philadelphia:WB Saunders, 2004, vol 4, pp 3405-3417
  57. McCrea HJ, Ment LR: The diagnosis, management, and postnatal prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm neonate. Clin Perinatol 35:777-792, 2008
  58. McIntire DD, Bloom SL, Casey BM, et al: Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. N Engl J Med 340:1234-1238, 1999
  59. Ment LR, Oh W, Ehrenkranz RA, et al: Antenatal steroids, delivery mode, and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172:795-800, 1995
  60. Ment LR, Oh W, Philip AG, et al: Risk factors for early intraventricular hemorrhage in low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 121 (5 Pt 1):776-783, 1992
  61. Ment LR, Stewart WB, Ardito TA, et al: Indomethacin promotes germinal matrix microvessel maturation in the newborn beagle pup. Stroke 23:1132-1137, 1992
  62. Ment LR, Vohr BR, Makuch RW, et al: Prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage by indomethacin in male preterm infants. J Pediatr 145:832-834, 2004
  63. Miner ME: Acetazolamide treatment of progressive hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in a preterm infant. Childs Nerv Syst 2:105-106, 1986
  64. Mitsiakos G, Papaioannou G, Giougi E, et al: Is the use of rFVIIa safe and effective in bleeding neonates? A retrospective series of 8 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29:145-150, 2007
  65. Moody DM, Brown WR, Challa VR, et al: Alkaline phosphatase histochemical staining in the study of germinal matrix hemorrhage and brain vascular morphology in a very-low-birth-weight neonate. Pediatr Res 35 (4 Pt 1):424-430, 1994
  66. Murphy BP, Inder TE, Rooks V, et al: Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation in the premature infant: natural history and predictors of outcome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 87:F37-41, 2002
  67. Muszinski C: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, in Malluci C, Sgouros S (eds): Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc., 2010, pp 141-153
  68. O’Brien DF, Seghedoni A, Collins DR, et al: Is there an indication for ETV in young infants in aetiologies other than isolated aqueduct stenosis? Childs Nerv Syst 22:1565-1572, 2006
  69. Oi S, Abbott R: Loculated ventricles and isolated compartments in hydrocephalus: their pathophysiology and the efficacy of neuroendoscopic surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am 15:77-87, 2004
  70. Pagano M, Leviton A, Kuban K: Early and late germinal matrix hemorrhage may have different antecedents. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 37:47-54, 1990
  71. Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, et al: Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: a study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 gm. J Pediatr 92:529-534, 1978
  72. Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, et al: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in low-birth-weight infants: treatment by serial lumbar punctures. J Pediatr 97:273-277, 1980
  73. Parfenova H, Levine V, Gunther WM, et al: COX-1 and COX-2 contributions to basal and IL-1 beta-stimulated prostanoid synthesis in human neonatal cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Pediatr Res 52:342-348, 2002
  74. Perlman JM, Rollins N: Surveillance protocol for the detection of intracranial abnormalities in premature neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154:822-826, 2000
  75. Perry RN, Bowman ED, Murton LJ, et al: Ventricular size in newborn infants. J Ultrasound Med 4:475-477, 1985
  76. Philip AG, Allan WC, Tito AM, et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: declining incidence in the 1980s. Pediatrics 84:797-801, 1989
  77. Pople IK, Ettles D: The role of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation in the management of hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 36:698-701; discussion 701-692, 1995
  78. Ventriculomegaly Trial Group: Randomised trial of early tapping in neonatal posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Arch Dis Child 65 (1 Spec No):3-10, 1990
  79. Ventriculomegaly Trial Group: Randomised trial of early tapping in neonatal posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: results at 30 months. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 70:F129-136, 1994
  80. Reinprecht A, Dietrich W, Berger A, et al: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants: long-term follow-up and shunt-related complications. Childs Nerv Syst 17:663-669, 2001
  81. Roland EH, Hill A: Intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Current and potential future interventions. Clin Perinatol 24:589-605, 1997
  82. Sajjadian N, Fakhrai H, Jahadi R: Incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Acta Med Iran 48:260-262, 2010
  83. Sauerbrei EE, Digney M, Harrison PB, et al: Ultrasonic evaluation of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and its complications. Radiology 139:677-685, 1981
  84. Savman K, Blennow M, Hagberg H, et al: Cytokine response in cerebrospinal fluid from preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Acta Paediatr 91:1357-1363, 2002
  85. Sgouros S, Malluci C, Walsh AR, et al: Long-term complications of hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 23:127-132, 1995
  86. Shankaran S, Papile LA, Wright LL, et al: The effect of antenatal phenobarbital therapy on neonatal intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 337:466-471, 1997
  87. Sheth RD: Trends in incidence and severity of intraventricular hemorrhage. J Child Neurol 13:261-264, 1998
  88. Sondhi V, Gupta G, Gupta PK, et al: Establishment of nomograms and reference ranges for intra-cranial ventricular dimensions and ventriculo-hemispheric ratio in newborns by ultrasonography. Acta Paediatr 97:738-744, 2008
  89. Synnes AR, Chien LY, Peliowski A, et al: Variations in intraventricular hemorrhage incidence rates among Canadian neonatal intensive care units. J Pediatr 138:525-531, 2001
  90. Takashima S, Mito T, Ando Y: Pathogenesis of periventricular white matter hemorrhages in preterm infants. Brain Dev 8:25-30, 1986
  91. Taylor AG, Peter JC: Advantages of delayed VP shunting in post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus seen in low-birth-weight infants. Childs Nerv Syst 17:328-333, 2001
  92. Taylor GA: Sonographic assessment of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Radiol Clin North Am 39:541-551, 2001
  93. Tubbs RS, Smyth MD, Wellons JC, et al: Alternative uses for the subgaleal shunt in pediatric neurosurgery. Pediatr Neurosurg 39:22-24, 2003
  94. Tuli S, Drake J, Lawless J, et al: Risk factors for repeated cerebrospinal shunt failures in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 92:31-38, 2000
  95. van Bel F, Klautz RJ, Steendijk P, et al: The influence of indomethacin on the autoregulatory ability of the cerebral vascular bed in the newborn lamb. Pediatr Res 34:178-181, 1993
  96. Vohr B, Allan WC, Scott DT, et al: Early-onset intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates: incidence of neurodevelopmental handicap. Semin Perinatol 23:212-217, 1999
  97. Vohr BR, Allan WC, Westerveld M, et al: School-age outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial. Pediatrics 111 (4 Pt 1):e340-346, 2003
  98. Vohr BR, Wright LL, Dusick AM, et al: Neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 1993-1994. Pediatrics 105:1216-1226, 2000
  99. Volpe JJ: Intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infant–current concepts. Part I. Ann Neurol 25:3-11, 1989
  100. Volpe JJ: Neurology of the Newborn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2008
  101. Warf BC, Campbell JW, Riddle E: Initial experience with combined endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization for post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity: the importance of prepontine cistern status and the predictive value of FIESTA MRI imaging. Childs Nerv Syst 27: 1063-71, 2011
  102. Whitelaw A: Repeated lumbar or ventricular punctures for preventing disability or shunt dependence in newborn infants with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD000216, 2000
  103. Whitelaw A: Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus: pathogenesis, prevention and future interventions. Semin Neonatol 6:135-146, 2001
  104. Whitelaw A: Postnatal phenobarbitone for the prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD001691, 2001
  105. Whitelaw A: Repeated lumbar or ventricular punctures in newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD000216, 2001
  106. Whitelaw A, Christie S, Pople I: Transforming growth factor-beta1: a possible signal molecule for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus? Pediatr Res 46:576-580, 1999
  107. Whitelaw A, Evans D, Carter M, et al: Randomized clinical trial of prevention of hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: brain-washing versus tapping fluid. Pediatrics 119:e1071-1078, 2007
  108. Whitelaw A, Jary S, Kmita G, et al: Randomized trial of drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy for premature infants with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: developmental outcome at 2 years. Pediatrics 125:e852-858, 2010
  109. Whitelaw A, Kennedy CR, Brion LP: Diuretic therapy for newborn infants with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD002270, 2001
  110. Whitelaw A, Odd DE: Postnatal phenobarbital for the prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4):CD001691, 2007
  111. Whitelaw A, Odd DE: Intraventricular streptokinase after intraventricular hemorrhage in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4):CD000498, 2007
  112. Whitelaw A, Pople I, Cherian S, et al: Phase 1 trial of prevention of hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in newborn infants by drainage, irrigation, and fibrinolytic therapy. Pediatrics 111 (4 Pt 1):759-765, 2003
  113. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M, Pople I: Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 86:F72-74, 2002