Cite

Copy

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen' to create a shortcut app

Tap on and choose 'Add to Home Screen/Install App' to create a shortcut app

References for Spine Infections in Children

This page was last updated on November 25th, 2022

  1. Wenger D, Bobechko W, Gilday D: The spectrum of intervertebral disc-space infection in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 60:100–108, 1978
  2. Boston HC Jr, Bianco AJ Jr, Rhodes KH: Disk space infections in children. Orthop Clin North Am 6: 953–964,1975
  3. Scoles P, Quinn T: Intervertebral discitis in children and adolescents. Clin Orthop 162:31–36, 1982
  4. Early S, Kay R, Tolo V: Childhood discitis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 6: 413-420, 2003
  5. Ring D, Johnston C, Wenger D: Pyogenic infectious spondylitis in children: The convergence of discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis. J Pediatr Orthop 15:652–660, 1995
  6. Fernandez M, Carrol C, Baker C: Discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis in children: An 18-year review. Pediatrics 105;1299-1304, 2000.
  7. Reihsaus E, Waldbaur H, Seeling W: Spinal epidural abscess: a meta-analysis of 915 patients. Neurosurgical Review 23:175-20,2000
  8. Strohecker J, Grobovschek M: Der spinale Epiduralabsze. ßeine interdisziplinäre Notfallsituation. Zentralbl Neurochir 47:120–124, 1986
  9. Auletta J, Chandy J: Spinal epidural abscesses in children: A 15-year experience and review of the literature. Clin Infect Disease 32:9-16, 2001
  10. Martin R, Yuan H: Neurosurgical care of spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary abscesses and arachnoiditis. Orthop Clin North Am 27:125–136, 1996
  11. Glazer P, Hu S: Pediatric spinal infections. Orthop Clin North Am 27:111–123, 1996
  12. Leys D, Lesoin F, Viaud C, et al: Decreased morbidity from acute bacterial spinal epidural abscesses using computed tomography and nonsurgical treatment in selected patients. Ann Neurol 17:350–355, 1985
  13. Bergamaschi G: Sulla Mielitide Stenica e sul Tetano Loro Identia, Metodo di Cura, in G. Torri (ed): e Mallatie Secondarie. che se Derivano Osservazioni. Pavia 1820.
  14. Walker A (ed): A History of Neurological Surgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1951
  15. Bristowe JS: Idiopathic inflamation of the theca vertebralis, with accummulation of pus following the course of the spinal nerves. Trans Pathol Soc Lond 6: 45-48, 1854
  16. Kurpad S: Infections of the spinal canal. Infections, in Hall W, McCutcheon I (eds): Neurosurgery. Park Ridge, Illinois: The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 2000, pp 65-80
  17. Rigamonti D, Liem,D, Sampath P, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: contemporary trends in etiology, evaluation, and management. Surg Neurol 52:189-196; discussion 197, 1999
  18. Wheeler D, Keiser P, Rigamondti D, et al: Medical management of spinal epidural abscesses: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 15: 22-27, 1992
  19. Tovar-Spinoza Z, Bode M: Spinal epidural abscess in a neonate. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:205-208, 2011
  20. Jacobsen FS, Sullivan B: Spinal epidural abscesses in children. Orthopedics 17:1131-1138, 1984
  21. Ghia A: Infections of the spinal axis, in Albright AL, Adelson PD (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 5th ed. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 1204-1206
  22. Auletta JJ, John CC: Spinal epidural abscesses in children: a 15-year experience and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 32:9-16, 2001
  23. Tang HJ, Lin HJ, Liu YC, et al: Spinal epidural abscess—experience with 46 patients and evaluation of prognostic factors. J Infect 45:76-81, 2002
  24. Wright R: Surgical management of intracranial and intraspinal infections in Sweet W, Schmidek HH (eds): Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods, and Results. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1995, pp 1673-1679
  25. Mohindra S , Gupta R, Chhabra R, et al: Infected intraparenchymal dermoids: an underestimated entity. J Child Neurol 23:1011-1016, 2008
  26. Bergman I, Wald ER, Meyer JD: Epidural abscess and vertebral osteomyelitis following serial lumbar punctures. Pediatrics 72:476-480, 1983
  27. Paro-Panjam D, Pedaric-Meglic N, Tekavcic I: Epidural cervical abcess in a neonate. Eur J Pediatr 165:730-731, 2006
  28. Pradilla G, Ardilla GP, Hsu W, et al: Epidural abscesses of the CNS. Lancet Neurol 8:292-300, 2009
  29. Sapico FL: Microbiology and antimicrobial therapy of spinal infections. Orthop Clin North Am 27:9-13, 1996
  30. Newell R: The spinal epidural space. Orthop Clin North Am 27:15-31, 1996
  31. Bowen DK, Mitchell LA, Burnett MW, et al: Spinal epidural abscess due to tropical pyomyositis in immunocompetent adolescents. J Neurosurg Pediatr 6: 33-37, 2010
  32. Martino AM, Winfield JA: Salmonella osteomyelitis with epidural abscess. A case report with review of osteomyelitis in children with sickle cell anemia. Pediatr Neurosurg 16:321-325, 1990
  33. Broner,FA, Garland DE, Zigler JE: Spinal infections in the immunocompromised host. Orthop Clin North Am 27:37-46, 1996
  34. Abbasi SJ, Hughes WT, Flynn PM: Aspergillosis in children with cancer: a 34-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 29:1210-1219, 1999
  35. Kumar A, Singh AK, Badole CM, et al: Tubercular epidural abscess in children: report of two cases. Indian J Tuberc 56(4): p. 217-9, 2009
  36. Baker AS, Ojemann RG, Swartz MN, et al: Spinal epidural abscess. N Engl J Med 293:463-468, 1975
  37. Rubin G, Michowitz SD, Ashkenazi A, et al: Spinal epidural abscess in the pediatric age group: case report and review of literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12:1007-1011, 1993
  38. Enberg RN, Kaplan RJ: Spinal epidural abscess in children. Early diagnosis and immediate surgical drainage is essential to forestall paralysis. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 13: 247-248, 1974
  39. Martin RJ, Yuan HA: Neurosurgical care of spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary abscesses and arachnoiditis. Orthop Clin North Am 27: 125-136, 1996
  40. Hogan Q: Epidural anatomy examined by cryomicrotome section: influence of age, vertebral level, and disease. Reg Anesth 21:395-406, 1996
  41. Smith AS, Blaser SI: Infectious and inflammatory processes of the spine. Radiol Clin North Am 29:809-827, 1991
  42. Darouiche RO: Spinal epidural abscess. N Engl J Med 355:2012-2020, 2006
  43. Pradilla G, Nagahama Y, Spivak AM, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: current diagnosis and management. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 12: 484-491, 2010
  44. Nussbaum ES, Rigamonti D, Standiford H, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: a report of 40 cases and review. Surg Neurol 38:225-231, 1992
  45. Gorak EJ, Yamada SM, Brown JD: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized adults and children without known risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 29:797-800, 1999
  46. Suggs AH, Maranan MC, Boyle-Vavra S, et al: Methicillin-resistant and borderline methicillin-resistant asymptomatic Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children without identifiable risk factors. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18:410-414, 1999
  47. Hlavin ML, Kaminski HJ, Ross JS, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: a ten-year perspective. Neurosurgery 27:177-184, 1990
  48. Soehle M, Wallenfang T: Spinal epidural abscesses: clinical manifestations, prognostic factors, and outcomes. Neurosurgery 51:79-85; discussion 86-87, 2002
  49. Rigamonti D, Metellus P: Spinal epidural abscess. N Engl J Med 356:638; author reply 638-9, 2007
  50. Darouiche RO, Hamill RJ, Greenberg SB, et al: Bacterial spinal epidural abscess. Review of 43 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:369-85, 1992
  51. Gudinchet F, Chapuis L, Berger D: Diagnosis of anterior cervical spinal epidural abscess by US and MRI in a newborn. Pediatr Radiol 21:515-517, 1991
  52. Greenberg M: Spinal epidural abscess, in Greenberg M (ed): Handbook of Neurosurgery, 7th ed. New York: Thieme, 2010, pp 376-380
  53. Runge,VM, Williams NM, Lee C, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in a spinal abscess model. Preliminary report. Invest Radiol, 33:246-255, 1998
  54. Rigamonti D, Liem L, Wolf AL, et al: Epidural abscess in the cervical spine. Mt Sinai J Med 61:357-362, 1994
  55. Choudhri HF, Choudhri AF, Choudhri TF: Surgical management of primary spinal infections: osteomyelitis, discitis and spinal epidural abscess, in Connolly ES, Huang J, Choudhri TF (eds): Fundamentals of Operative Techniques in Neurosurgery. New York: Thieme, 2002, pp 807-809
  56. Fischer EG, Greene CS Jr, Winston KR: Spinal epidural abscess in children. Neurosurgery 9:257-260, 1981
  57. Leys D, Lesoin F, Viaud C, et al: Decreased morbidity from acute bacterial spinal epidural abscesses using computed tomography and nonsurgical treatment in selected patients. Ann Neurol 17:350-355, 1985
  58. Leys D, Petit H: Spinal epidural abscesses: surgery or conservative treatment? Clin Neurol Neurosurg 90:181-182, 1988
  59. Rezai AR, Lee M, Cooper PR, et al: Modern management of spinal tuberculosis. Neurosurgery 36:87-97; discussion 97-98, 1995
  60. Bavdekar S, Rao N, Kamat J: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess. The Indian J Pediatr 64:428-431, 1997
  61. Chidambaram B, Balasubramaniam V: Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord. Pediatr Neurosurg 34:43-44, 2001
  62. Byrne RW, Von Roenn KA, Whisler WW: Intramedullary abscess: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Neurosurgery 35:321-326, 1994
  63. Khriesat W, Qudsieh S, Qudsieh H, et al: Management of intramedullary spinal cord abscess: experience with four cases, pathophysiology and outcomes. Eur Spine J 18:710-717, 2009
  64. Simon JK, Lazareff JA, Diament MJ, et al: Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord in children: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:186, 2003
  65. Guzel N, Eras M, Guzel DK: A child with spinal intramedullary abscess. Child Nerv Syst 19:773-776, 2003
  66. Shah J, Joshi V, Patkar D: Dorsal dermal sinus with intramedullary abscess formation. Australas Radiol 51:B205-B209, 2007
  67. Roh JE, Lee SY, Cha S-H, et al: Sequential magnetic resonance imaging finding of intramedullary spinal cord abscess including diffusion weighted image: a case report. Korean J Radiol 12:241-246, 2011
  68. Yüceer N, Senoglu M, Arda M: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess in a 4-year old child. Acta Neurochir 146:1273-1274, 2004
  69. Morimoto K, Takemoto O, Nakamura H, et al: Spinal dermal sinus associated with intramedullary abscess and dermoid. Pediatr Neurosurg 39:225-226, 2003
  70. Houx L, Brochard S, Peudenier S, et al: Recovery after tetraplegia caused by dermal sinus infection: intramedullary abscess and tetraparesis. Pediatr Neurol 44:229-232, 2011
  71. Bunyaratavej K, Desudchit T, Pongpunlert W: Holocord intramedullary abscess due to dermal sinus in a 2-month-old child successfully treated with limited myelotomy and aspiration: Case report. J Neurosurg 104: 269-274, 2006
  72. Turgut M, Turgut AT, Kosar U: Spinal brucellosis: Turkish experience based on 452 cases published during the last century. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 148:1033–44; discussion 1044, 2006
  73. Leite C, Jinkins J, Escobar B, et al: MR imaging of intramedullary and intradural–extramedullary spinal cysticercosis. Am J Radiol 169:1713–1717, 1997
  74. Akiguchi I, Fujiwara T, Matsuyama H, et al: Intramedullary cysticercosis. Neurology 29:1531–1534, 1979
  75. Song S, Ogden J, Ganey T, et al: Contiguous discitis and osteomyelitis in children. J Pediatr Orthop 17:470-477, 1997
  76. Wiley A, Trueta J: The vascular anatomy of the spine and its relationship to pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 41:796–809, 1959
  77. Ratcliffe J: Anatomic basis for the pathogenesis and radiologic features of vertebral osteomyelitis and its differentiation from childhood discitis: a microarteriographic investigation. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh) 26:137–143, 1985
  78. Correa A, Edwards M, Baker C: Vertebral osteomyelitis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12:228–233, 1993
  79. Crawford A, Kucharzyk D, Ruda R, et al: Discitis in children. Clin Orthop 266:70–79, 1991
  80. Kemp H, Jackson J, Jeremiah J, et al: Pyogenic infections occurring primarily in intervertebral discs. J Bone Joint Surg Br 55:698–714, 1973
  81. Kayser R, Mahlfeld K, Greulich M, et al: Spondylodiscitis in childhood: results of a long-term study. Spine 30:318–323, 2005
  82. Donovan P, Bowen B, Sze G: Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal infection. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 17:773–794, 1991
  83. Jauregui L: Bone and joint infections, in Steele RW (ed): The Clinical Handbook of Pediatric Infectious Disease, 2nd ed. New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group Inc, 2000, pp 147-158
  84. Martin RJ, Yuan HA: Neurosurgical care of spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary abscesses and arachnoiditis. Orthop Clin North Am 27: 125-136, 1996
  85. Hadjipavlou A, Mader J, Necessary J, et al: Hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections and their surgical management. Spine 25:1668–1679, 2000
  86. Garron E,Viehweger E, Launay F, et al: Nontuberculous spondylodiscitis in children. J Pediatr Orthop 22:321-328, 2002
  87. Heusner AP: Nontuberculous spinal epidural infections. New Engl J Med 239:845-854, 1948
  88. Bartels RH, de Jong TR, Grotenhuis JA: Spinal subdural abscess. Case report. J Neurosurg 76:307-311, 1992
  89. Chen MH, Huang JS: Cervical subdural empyema following acupuncture. J Clin Neurosci 11:909-911, 2004
  90. Wu AS, Griebel RW, Meguro K, et al: Spinal subdural empyema after a dural tear. Neurosurg Focus 17:1-4, 2004
  91. Betty M, Lorber J: Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26:236-240, 1963
  92. DiTullio Jr M: Intramedullary spinal abscess: a case report with a review of 53 previously described cases. Surg Neurol 7:351, 1977
  93. Alessi G, Lemmerling M, Nathoo N: Combined spinal subdural tuberculous empyema and intramedullary tuberculoma in an HIV-positive patient. Eur Radiol 13:1899-1901, 2003
  94. Sorar M, Er U, Seckin H, Ozturk MH, et al: Spinal subdural abscess: a rare cause of low back pain. J Clin Neurosci 15:292-294, 2008
  95. Morandi X, Mercier P, Fournier HD, et al: Dermal sinus and intramedullary spinal cord abscess Report of two cases and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 15:202-207, 1999
  96. Van Aalst J, Beuls EAM, Cornips EMJ, et al: Anatomy and surgery of the infected dermal sinus of the lower spine. Childs Nerv Syst 22:1307-1315, 2006
  97. Medina M, Viglietti A, Gozzoli L, et al: Indium-111 labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in cranial and spinal septic lesions. Eur J Nucl Med 27:1473-1480, 2000
  98. Wills KW: Neuropsychological functioning in children with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus. J Clin Child Psych 22:247-265, 1993
  99. Hart J. Case of encysted abscess in the center of the spinal cord. Dublin Hospital Report 5:522–524, 1830
  100. Bartels RH, de Jong TR, Grotenhuis JA: Spinal subdural abscess. Case report. J Neurosurg 76:307-311, 1992
  101. Fraser RA, Ratzan K, Wolpert SM, et al: Spinal subdural empyema. Arch Neurol 28:235, 1973
  102. Kurita N, Sakurai Y, Taniguchi M, et al: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess treated with antibiotic therapy. Neurol Med Chir 49:262-268, 2009
  103. Byrne RW, Von Roenn KA, Whisler WW: Intramedullary abscess: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Neurosurgery 35:321-6, 1994
  104. Dörflinger-Hejlek E, Kirsch E, Reiter H, et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of intramedullary spinal cord abscess. AJNR 31:1651-1652, 2010
  105. Dacey RG, Winn RH, Jane JA, et al: Spinal subdural empyema: report of two cases. Neurosurgery 3:400-3, 1978
  106. Volk T, Hebecker R, Ruecker G, et al: Subdural empyema combined with paraspinal abscess after epidural catheter insertion. Anesth Analg 100:1222-1223, 2005
  107. Vural M, Arslantaş A, Adapınar B, et al: Spinal subdural Staphylococcus aureus abscess: case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurol Scand 112:343-346, 2005
  108. Gelfand MS, Bakhtian BJ, Simmons BP: Spinal sepsis due to Streptococcus milleri: two cases and review. Rev Infect Dis 13:559-563, 1991
  109. Curry WT, Hoh BL, Amin-Hanjani S, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: clinical presentation, management, and outcome. Surg Neurol 63:364-371, 2005
  110. Hollis PH, Malis LI, Zappulla RA: Neurological deterioration after lumbar puncture below complete spinal subarachnoid block. J Neurosurg 64:253-256, 1986
  111. De Bonis P, Anile C, Pompucci A, et al: Cranial and spinal subdural empyema. Br J Neurosurg 23:335-340, 2009
  112. Kalaycý M, Çaðavi F, Altunkaya H, et al: Subdural empyema due to spinal anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 49:426-426, 2005
  113. Levy ML, Wieder BH, Schneider J, et al: Subdural empyema of the cervical spine: clinicopathological correlates and magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 79:929-935, 1993
  114. Slack J: Coning and lumbar puncture. The Lancet 316:474-475, 1980
  115. Thomé C, Krauss JK, Zevgaridis D, et al: Pyogenic abscess of the filum terminale. J Neurosurg: Spine 95:100-104, 2001
  116. Velissaris D, Aretha D, Fligou F, et al: Spinal subdural Staphylococcus aureus abscess: case report and review of the literature. World J Emerg Surg 4:31, 2009
  117. Nussbaum ES, Rigamonti D, Standiford H, et al: Spinal epidural abscess: a report of 40 cases and review. Surg Neurol 38:225-231, 1992
  118. Greenlee JE: Subdural empyema. Current Treat Options Neurol 5:13-22, 2003
  119. Heusner AP: Nontuberculous spinal epidural infections. N Engl J Med 239:845-854, 1948
  120. Houghton KM: Review for the generalist: evaluation of low back pain in children and adolescents. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 8:1-8, 2010
  121. Koppel BS, Daras M, Duffy KR: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess. Neurosurgery 26:145, 1990
  122. Schneider P, Givens TG: Spinal subdural abscess in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care 14:22-23, 1998
  123. Tewari M, Devi BI, Thakur R, et al: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess: a case report. Childs Nerv Syst 8:290-291, 1992
  124. Tsurubuchi T, Matsumura A, Nakai K, et al: Reversible holocord edema associated with intramedullary spinal abscess secondary to an infected dermoid cyst. Pediatr Neurosurg 37:282-286, 2002
  125. Hori K, Kano T, Fukushige T, et al: Successful treatment of epidural abscess with a percutaneously introduced 4-French catheter for drainage. Anesth Analg 84:1384-1386, 199
  126. Sandler AL, Thompson D, Goodrich JT, et al: Infections of the spinal subdural space in children: a series of 11 contemporary cases and review of all published reports. A multinational collaborative effort. Childs Nerv Syst 29:105-117, 2013
  127. David C, Brasme L, Peruzzi P, et al: Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord in a patient with a right-to-left shunt: case report. Clin Infect Dis 24:89-90, 1997
  128. Chan CT, Gold WL: Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord in the antibiotic era: clinical features, microbial etiologies, trends in pathogenesis, and outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 27:619-626, 1998
  129. DiPietro MA: The conus medullaris: normal US findings throughout childhood. Radiology 188:149–153, 1993
  130. Coley BD, Shiels WE II, Hogan MJ: Diagnostic and interventional ultrasonography in neonatal and infant lumbar puncture. Pediatr Radiol 31:399–402, 2001
  131. Unsinn KM, Geley T, Freund MC, et al: US of the spinal cord in newborns: spectrum of normal findings, variants, congenital anomalies, and acquired diseases. Radiographics 20:923–938, 2000
  132. Dick EA, Patel K, Owens CM, et al: Spinal ultrasound in infants. Br J Radiol 75, 384-392, 2002
  133. Carney DE, Nicolette LA, Ratner MH, et al: Ketorolac reduces postoperative narcotic requirements. J Pediatr Surg 36:76–79, 2001
  134. Kay B. Caudal block for post-operative pain relief in children. Anaesthesia 29:610–611, 1974
  135. McGown RG: Caudal analgesia in children. Five hundred cases for procedures below the diaphragm. Anaesthesia 37:806–818, 1982
  136. Broadman LM, Hannallah RS, Norden JM, et al: ‘Kiddie caudals’: experience with 1154 consecutive cases without complications. Anesth Analg S18:66, 1987
  137. Dalens B, Hasnaoui A: Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgery: success rate and adverse effects in 750 consecutive patients. Anesth Analg 68:83–89, 1989
  138. Busoni P, Andreuccetti T: The spread of caudal analgesia in children: a mathematical model. Anaesth Intensive Care 14:140–144, 1986
  139. Patel JM, Lanzafame RJ, Williams JS, et al: The effect of incisional infiltration of bupivacaine hydrochloride upon pulmonary functions, atelectasis and narcotic need following elective cholecystectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 157:338–340, 1983
  140. Samii M, Klekamp J. Surgical results of 100 intramedullary tumors in relation to accompanying syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 35:865–873, 1994
  141. Walco GA, Dworkin RH, Krane EJ, et al: Neuropathic pain in children: special considerations. Mayo Clin Proc 85(3 Suppl): S33-S41, 2010
  142. Louie JP, Bell LM: Appropriate use of antibiotics for common infections in an era of increasing resistance. Emerg Med Clin North Am 20:69-91, 2002
  143. Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al: Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18 (3): CD004417, 2007
  144. Hopkinson N, Stevenson J, Benjamin S: A case ascertainment study of septic discitis; clinical, microbiological and radiological features. QJM 94: 465-470, 2001
  145. Ghia A, Proctor MR: Infections of the spinal axis, in Albright AL, Pollack IF, Adelson PD (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2nd ed. New York: Thieme, 2008, pp 1198-1199
  146. Langdon FW: Pachymeningitis spinalis externa: recovery. Read before the Neurological Section of the American Medical Association. JAMA 33: 522-525, 1899
  147. Krogsgaard MR, Wagn P, Bengtsson J: Epidemiology of acute vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark: 137 cases in Denmark 1978–1982, compared to cases reported to the National Patient Register 1991–1993. Acta Orthop Scand 69:513-517, 1998
  148. Grammatico L, Baron S, Rusch E, et al.: Epidemiology of vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) in France: analysis of hospital-discharge data 2002–2003. Epidemiol Infect 136:653-660, 2008
  149. Bratzler D, Dellinger E, Olsen K, et.al: Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 70:195-283, 2013
  150. Kaufman B: Spinal infections in children, in Albright LA, Pollack IF, Adelson DP (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 1. New York: Thieme, 1999, p 1246

Your donations keep us going

The ISPN Guide is free to use, but we rely on donations to fund our ongoing work and to maintain more than a thousand pages of information created to disseminate the most up-to-date knowledge in the field of paediatric neurosurgery.

By making a donation to The ISPN Guide you are also indirectly helping the many thousands of children around the world whose treatment depends on well-informed surgeons.

Please consider making a donation today.

Use the app

The ISPN Guide can be used as a standalone app, both on mobile devices and desktop computers. It’s quick and easy to use.

Fully featured

Free registration grants you full access to The Guide and host of featured designed to help further your own education.

Stay updated

The ISPN Guide continues to expand both in breadth and depth. Join our mailing list to stay up-to-date with our progress.