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References for Positional Plagiocephaly in Children

This page was last updated on November 25th, 2022

  1. AAP Task Force on Infant Positioning and SIDS: Positioning and SIDS. Pediatrics 89:1120-1126, 1992
  2. AAP Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Changing concepts of sudden infant death syndrome: implications for infant sleeping environment and sleep position. Pediatrics 105:650-656, 2000
  3. AAP Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics 116:1245-1255, 2005
  4. Argenta L, David L, Thompson J: Clinical classification of positional plagiocephaly. J Craniofac Surg 15:368-372, 2004
  5. Baird LC, Klimo P Jr, Flannery AM, et al: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of Patients With Positional Plagiocephaly: The Role of Physical Therapy. Neurosurgery Nov;79(5):E630-E631, 2016
  6. Ballardini E, Sisti M, Basaglia N, et al: Prevalence and characteristics of positional plagiocephaly in healthy full-term infants at 8-12 weeks of life. Eur J Pediatr. Oct;177(10):1547-1554, 2018
  7. Boere-Boonekamp MM, van der Linden-Kuiper LL: Positional preference: prevalence in infants and follow-up after two years. Pediatrics 107:339-343, 2001
  8. Clarren SK: Plagiocephaly and torticollis: etiology, natural history, and helmet treatment. J Pediatr 98:92-95, 1981
  9. Collett B, Breiger D, King D, et al: Neurodevelopmental implications of “deformational” plagiocephaly. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:379-389, 2005
  10. Davis BE, Moon RY, Sachs HC, et al: Effects of sleep position on infant motor development. Pediatrics 102:1135-1140, 1998
  11. de Chalain TM, Park S: Torticollis associated with positional plagiocephaly: a growing epidemic. J Craniofac Surg 16:411-418, 2005
  12. de Ribaupierre S, Vernet O, Rilliet B, et al: Posterior positional plagiocephaly treated with cranial remodeling orthosis. Swiss Med Wkly 137:368-372, 2007
  13. Govaert B, Michels A, Colla C, et al: Molding therapy of positional plagiocephaly: subjective outcome and quality of life. J Craniofac Surg 19:56-58, 2008
  14. Graham JM, Jr., Gomez M, Halberg A, et al: Management of deformational plagiocephaly: repositioning versus orthotic therapy. J Pediatr 146:258-262, 2005
  15. Hellbusch JL, Hellbusch LC, Bruneteau RJ: Active counter-positioning treatment of deformational occipital plagiocephaly. Nebr Med J 80:344-349, 1995
  16. Hinken L, Willenborg H, Dávila LA, Daentzer D. Outcome analysis of molding helmet therapy using a classification differentiation between plagiocephaly, brachycephaly and combination of both. J Craniomaxillofac Surg pii: S1010-5182(18)30737-6, 2019 
  17. Holowka MA, Reisner A, Giavedoni B, et al: Plagiocephaly severity scale to aid in clinical treatment recommendations.  J Craniofacial Surg 28:717-722, 2017
  18. Hutchison BL, Hutchison LA, Thompson JM, et al: Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly in the first two years of life: a prospective cohort study. Pediatrics 114:970-980, 2004
  19. Jantz JW, Blosser CD, Fruechting LA: A motor milestone change noted with a change in sleep position. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 151:565-568, 1997
  20. Flannery AB, Looman WS, Kemper K: Evidence-based care of the child with deformational plagiocephaly, Part II: Management. J Pediatr Health Care 26:320-331, 2012
  21. Kane AA, Mitchell LE, Craven KP, et al: Observations on a recent increase in plagiocephaly without synostosis. Pediatrics 97:877-85, 1996
  22. Kelly KM, Joganic EF, Beals SP, et al:  Helmet treatment of infants with deformational brachycephaly. Global Pediatric Health 5:1-11, 2018
  23. Kelly KM, Littlefield TR, Pomatto JK, et al: Importance of early recognition and treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with orthotic cranioplasty. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 36:127-130, 1999
  24. Klimo P Jr, Lingo PR, Baird LC, et al: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Management of Patients with Positional Plagiocephaly: The Role of Repositioning. Neurosurgery 79(5):E627-E629, 2019
  25. Kunz F, Schweitzer T, Grosse S et al:  Head orthosis therapy in positional plagiocephaly:  longitudinal 3D-investiation of long-term outcomes, compared with untreated infants and with a control group.  European J of Orthodontics 41: 29-37, 2019
  26. Lee HS, Kim SJ, Kwon JY:  Parents’ perspectives and clinical effectiveness of cranial-molding orthoses in infants with plagiocephaly. Ann Rehabil Med 42:737-747, 2018
  27. Lee RP, Teichgraeber JF, Baumgartner JE, et al: Long-term treatment effectiveness of molding helmet therapy in the correction of posterior deformational plagiocephaly: a five-year follow-up. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 45:240-245, 2008
  28. Lee WT, Richards K, Redhed J, et al: A pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly. J Craniofac Surg 17:139-144, 2006
  29. Littlefield TR, Beals SP, Manwaring KH, et al: Treatment of craniofacial asymmetry with dynamic orthotic cranioplasty. J Craniofac Surg 9:11-17, 1998
  30. Littlefield TR, Kelly KM, Pomatto JK, et al: Multiple-birth infants at higher risk for development of deformational plagiocephaly. Pediatrics 103:565-569, 1999
  31. Littlefield TR, Kelly KM, Reiff JL, Pomatto JK:  Car seats, infant carriers, and swings: their role in deformational plagiocephaly. J Prosthetics and Orthotics 15: 102-106, 2003
  32. Littlefield TR, Saba NM, Kelly KM. On the current incidence of deformational plagiocephaly: an estimation based on prospective registration at a single center. Semin Pediatr Neurol 11(4):301-4, 2004
  33. Looman WS, Flannery AB:  Evidence-based care of the child with deformational plagiocephaly, Part I: Assessment and diagnosis. J Ped Health Care 26:242-250, 2012
  34. Losee JE, Mason AC, Dudas J, et al: Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly: factors impacting onset, treatment, and outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg 119:1866-1873, 2007
  35. Loveday BP, de Chalain TB: Active counterpositioning or orthotic device to treat positional plagiocephaly? J Craniofac Surg 12:308-313, 2001
  36. Marchac A, Arnaud E, Di Rocco F, et al: Severe deformational plagiocephaly: long-term results of surgical treatment. J Craniofac Surg 22(1):24-9, 2011
  37. Mawji A, Vollman AR, Hatfield J, McNeil DA, Sauvé R. The incidence of positional plagiocephaly: a cohort study. Pediatrics 132(2):298-304, 2013
  38. Mazzola C, Baird LC, Bauer DF, et al: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline for the Diagnosis of Patients with Positional Plagiocephaly: The Role of Imaging. Neurosurgery 79(5):E625-E62, 2016
  39. McKinney CM, Cunningham ML, Holt VL, et al: Characteristics of 2733 cases diagnosed with deformational plagiocephaly and changes in risk factors over time. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 45:208-216, 2008
  40. Miller RI, Clarren SK: Long-term developmental outcomes in patients with deformational plagiocephaly. Pediatrics 105:E26, 2000
  41. Mortenson PA, Steinbok P: Quantifying positional plagiocephaly: reliability and validity of anthropometric measurements. J Craniofac Surg 17:413-419, 2006
  42. Moss SD: Nonsurgical, nonorthotic treatment of occipital plagiocephaly: what is the natural history of the misshapen neonatal head? J Neurosurg 87:667-670, 1997
  43. Mulliken JB, Vander Woude DL, Hansen M, et al: Analysis of posterior plagiocephaly: deformational versus synostotic. Plast Reconstr Surg 103:371-380, 1999
  44. O’Broin ES, Allcutt D, Earley MJ: Posterior plagiocephaly: proactive conservative management. Br J Plast Surg 52:18-23, 1999
  45. Peitsch WK, Keefer CH, LaBrie RA, et al: Incidence of cranial asymmetry in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 110:e72, 2002
  46. Persing J, James H, Swanson J, et al: Prevention and management of positional skull deformities in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Plastic Surgery and Section on Neurological Surgery. Pediatrics 112:199-202, 2003
  47. Pollack IF, Losken HW, Fasick P: Diagnosis and management of posterior plagiocephaly. Pediatrics 99:180-185, 1997
  48. Regelsberger J, Delling G, Tsokos M, et al: High-frequency ultrasound confirmation of positional plagiocephaly. J Neurosurg 105:413-417, 2006
  49. Robinson S, Proctor M: Diagnosis and management of deformational plagiocephaly. J Neurosurg Pediatr 3:284-295, 2009
  50. Rogers GF, Miller J, Mulliken JB: Comparison of a modifiable cranial cup versus repositioning and cervical stretching for the early correction of deformational posterior plagiocephaly. Plast Reconstr Surg 121:941-947, 2008
  51. Saeed NR, Wall SA, Dhariwal DK: Management of positional plagiocephaly. Arch Dis Child 93:82-84, 2008
  52. Shweikeh F, Nuño M, Danielpour M, et al: Positional plagiocephaly: an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of current guidelines. Neurosurg Focus 35(4):E1, 2013
  53. Stellwagen L, Hubbard E, Chambers C, et al: Torticollis, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly in normal newborns. Arch Dis Child 93:827-831, 2008
  54. Sze RW, Parisi MT, Sidhu M, et al: Ultrasound screening of the lambdoid suture in the child with posterior plagiocephaly. Pediatr Radiol 33:630-636, 2003
  55. Tamber MS, Nikas D, Beier A, et al: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Role of Cranial Molding Orthosis (Helmet) Therapy for Patients With Positional Plagiocephaly. Neurosurgery 79(5):E632-E633, 2016
  56. Teichgraeber JF, Seymour-Dempsey K, Baumgartner JE, et al: Molding helmet therapy in the treatment of brachycephaly and plagiocephaly. J Craniofac Surg 15:118-123, 2004
  57. van Vlimmeren LA, van der Graaf Y, Boere-Boonekamp MM, et al: Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study. Pediatrics 119:e408-418, 2007
  58. Zonenshayn M, Kronberg E, Souweidane MM: Cranial index of symmetry: an objective semiautomated measure of plagiocephaly. Technical note. J Neurosurg 100:537-540, 2004

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