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References for Hypertonia in Children

This page was last updated on April 8th, 2024

  1. Sanger TD, Delgado MR, Gaebler-Spira D, et al: Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood. Pediatrics 111: e89-e97, 2001
  2. Arneson CL, Durkin MS, Benedict RE, et al: Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Three Sites, United States, 2004. Disability and Health Journal 2: 45–48, 2009
  3. Bhasin TK, Brocksen S, Avchen RN, et al: Prevalence of four developmental disabilities among children aged 8 years – Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, 1996 and 2000. MMWR. Surveillance Summaries, 55: 1–9, 2006
  4. Paneth N, Hong T, Korzeniewski S: The descriptive epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Clinics in Perinatology 33: 251–267, 2006
  5. Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE). Prevalence and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy in Europe. Dev Med Child Neurol 44: 633–640, 2002
  6. Winter S, Autry A, Boyle C, et al: Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy in a population-based study. Pediatrics 110: 1220–1225.
  7. Christensen D, Van Naarden Braun K, Doernberg NS, et al: Prevalence of cerebral palsy, co-occurring autism spectrum disorders, and motor functioning – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, USA, 2008. Dev Med Child Neurol 56:59-65, 2014
  8. Fink JW; Hereditary spastic paraplegia overview, in Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, et al (eds): GeneReview. Seattle: University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2014. [Accessed 16 February 2014]
  9. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH: Children who “outgrew’ cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 69:529-536, 1982.
  10. Arens LJ, Peacock WJ, Peter J: Selective posterior rhizotomy: a long-term follow-up study. Childs Nerv Syst 5:148-152, 1989.
  11. Pfeifer LL, Rodrigues Silva DB, Rodrigues Funayama CA, et al: Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 67: 1057-1061, 2009
  12. Beaino G, Khoshnood B, Kaminski M, et al: Predictors of cerebral palsy in very premature infants: the EPIPAGE prospective population-based cohort study. Dev Med Child Neurol 52: e119-e125, 2010
  13. Romeo DM, Cioni M, Battaglia LR, et al: Spectrum of gross motor and cognitive functions in children with cerebral palsy: gender differences. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 15:53-58, 2011
  14. Gustavson KH, Hagberg B, Sanner G: Identical syndromes of cerebral palsy in the same family. Acta Paediat Scand 58: 330-340, 1969
  15. Bundey S, Griffiths MI: Recurrence risks in families of children with symmetrical spasticity. Dev Med Child Neurol 19: 179-191, 1977
  16. McHale DP, Mitchell S, Bundey S, et al: A gene for autosomal recessive symmetrical spastic cerebral palsy maps to chromosome 2q24-25. Am J Hum Genet 64: 526-532, 1999
  17. Mitchell S, Bundey S: Symmetry of neurological signs in Pakistani patients with probable inherited spastic cerebral palsy. Clin Genet 51: 7-14, 1997
  18. Nelson KB: Causative factors in cerebral palsy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 51: 749-762, 2008
  19. Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, et al: A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2006. Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl 109:8-14, 2007
  20. Center for Disease Control: Data and Statistics for Cerebral Palsy. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control, 2013 ( [Accessed 2014 Feb 17]
  21. Abbott R, Johann-Murphy M, Shiminski-Maher T, et al: Selective dorsal rhizotomy: outcome and complications in treating spastic cerebral palsy. Neurosurgery 33:851-857; discussion 857, 1993
  22. Bohannon R, Smith M: Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Physical Therapy 67: 206, 1987
  23. Lance WW: The control of muscle tone, reflexes and movement. Robert Wartenberg Lecture. Neurology 30: 1303-12, 1980
  24. Staudt M: Imaging cerebral palsy. Handbook Clin Neurol 111: 177-181, 2013
  25. Krageloh-Mann I: Imaging of early brain injury and cortical plasticity. Exp Neurol 190: S84–S90, 2004
  26. Houle AM, Vernet O, Jednak R, et al: Bladder function before and after selective dorsal rhizotomy in children with cerebral palsy. J Urol 160(3 Pt 2):1088-1091, 1998